I Sentences, Distinction 10
The Holy Spirit as Love

Art. 4: utrum persona procedens per modum amoris, proprie dicatur spiritus sanctusArt. 4: Whether the Person proceeding through the mode of love is properly called the Holy Spirit
ad quartum sic proceditur. Proceeding thus to the fourth.
videtur quod persona quae procedit ut amor, non proprie dicatur spiritus sanctus. illud enim quod est commune tribus personis, non efficitur proprium, nisi aliquo proprio adjuncto. sed spiritus convenit tribus personis, joan. 4, 24: spiritus est deus. sanctus autem quod additur, est etiam commune, et non proprium. ergo videtur quod spiritus sanctus non sit proprium nomen alicujus personae.Obj. 1: It seems that the Person who proceeds as love is not properly called 'Holy Spirit'. For what is common to the three Persons is not made proper except by something proper being adjoined [to it]. But 'Spirit' belongs to the three persons, as is said in Jn. 4:24: "God is Spirit." But the 'Holy' which is added is also common and not proper. Therefore it seems that the Holy Spirit is not the proper name of any Person.
praeterea, personae distinguuntur per relationem originis. sed hujusmodi relationes, secundum modum intelligendi, consequuntur processiones personarum. ergo quaelibet persona debet denominari secundum processionem aliquam. sed spiritus sanctus nullam processionem vel processionis modum exprimit. ergo non videtur esse nomen alicujus personae.Obj. 2: Further, Persons are distinguished by relation of origin. But relations of this kind, according to the mode of understanding, follow upon the processions of the Persons. Therefore each Person ought to be named according to some procession. But 'Holy Spirit' expresses no procession or mode of procession. Therefore it does not seem to be the name of any Person.
si dicas, quod dicitur spiritus sanctus, quia procedit ut amor, scilicet ad similitudinem ejus quod dico: duo amantes conspirant sibi in amore per osculum oris, unde fit respiratio: contra, secundum hoc, nomen spiritus sumeretur ex similitudine spiritus corporalis. sed omne tale nomen dicitur de deo metaphorice, et non proprie nec secundum prius. cum igitur nomina personalia inveniantur in divinis proprie, et etiam per prius quam in creaturis, ut dicitur ephes. 3, 15: ex quo omnis paternitas in caelis et in terra nominatur; videtur quod per istum modum nulla persona divina debeat nominari spiritus sanctus.If you say that He is called 'Holy Spirit' because He proceeds as love, namely by way of likeness to two lovers who in their love breathe together by a kiss of the mouth, so that a single breathing comes to be -- against this, I say that according to this comparison the name of 'Spirit' would be taken from the likeness of bodily breath. But every such name is said of God metaphorically and not properly nor by priority. Since therefore the personal names are found properly in God, as well as by priority to those [names] in creatures, as is said in Eph. 3:15: "From whom all paternity in heaven and on earth is named", it seems that through that mode [viz. metaphorical] no divine Person ought to be named the Holy Spirit.
praeterea, sicut processio, quae est per modum amoris, est sancta; ita illa quae est per modum naturae. ergo sicut non dicitur filius sanctus, ita non debet dici spiritus sanctus. Obj. 3: Further, just as the procession which is through the mode of love is holy, so that which is through the mode of nature [is holy]. Therefore just as He [the second Person] is not called 'Holy Son', so He [the third Person] ought not to be called 'Holy Spirit'.
in contrarium est tota scriptura, et totus usus ecclesiae, quae tertiam in trinitate personam sic nominat.On the contrary is the whole of Scripture and the whole usage of the Church, which thus names the third in the Trinity of Persons.
respondeo dicendum, quod spiritus est nomen positum ad significandum subtilitatem alicujus naturae; unde dicitur tam de corporalibus quam de incorporeis: aer enim spiritus dicitur propter subtilitatem; et exinde attractio aeris et expulsio dicitur inspiratio et respiratio; et exinde ventus etiam dicitur spiritus; et exinde etiam subtilissimi vapores, per quos diffunduntur virtutes animae in partes corporis, dicuntur spiritus; et similiter incorporea propter suam subtilitatem dicuntur spiritus; sicut dicimus spiritum deum, et angelum, et animam. et inde est etiam quod dicimus duos homines amantes se, et concordes, esse unius spiritus vel conspiratos; sicut etiam dicimus eos esse unum cor et unam animam; sicut dicitur eth. 9: proprium amicorum est, unam animam in duobus corporibus esse. subtilitas autem dicitur per remotionem a materialitate; unde ea quae habent multum de materia vocamus grossa, sicut terram; et ea quae minus, subtilia, sicut aerem et ignem. unde cum removeri a materia magis sit in incorporeis, et maxime in deo, spiritualitas secundum rationem significationis suae per prius invenitur in deo, et magis in incorporeis quam in corporalibus; quamvis forte secundum impositionem nominis spiritualitas magis se teneat ad corporalia, eo quod nobis qui nomina imposuimus, eorum subtilitas magis est manifesta. I respond: it should be said that 'spirit' is a name imposed to signify the subtlety of some nature. Hence, it is said of corporeal as well as incorporeal things: for air is called 'spirit' on account of its subtlety, whence [an animal's] taking in and expulsion of air is called 'inspiration' and 'respiration', and wind, too, is called 'spirit', and also the most subtle vapors through which the soul's powers are diffused throughout the parts of the body are called 'spirits'; and in like manner, incorporeal things are called 'spirits' on account of their subtlety, even as we call God, and an angel and a soul, 'spirit'. And from this, too, comes our manner of saying that two human beings who love each other and are of one heart [concordes] are 'of one spirit' or 'together in spirit' [conspiratos], just as we also say that they are one heart and one soul, for, as is said in Ethics IX, "it is proper to friends to be one soul in two bodies." Now subtlety is said by way of remotion from materiality. Accordingly, those things which have much of matter, like earth, we call 'gross', and those things which have less, like air and fire, we call 'subtle'. Hence, since to be removed from matter is [found] more in incorporeal things and most of all in God, 'spirituality', according to the account of its meaning, is found by priority in God, and more in incorporeal things than in bodily things, although perhaps according to the [first] imposition of the name, 'spirituality' applies more to corporeal things, because their subtlety is more manifest to us who impose the name.
secundum hoc igitur dico, quod spiritus, inquantum nominat subtilitatem naturae, commune est tribus personis; sed duplici ratione nominatur spiritus sanctus a spiritualitate. una et praecipua est, ut credo, quia per ipsum et dona ipsius in participationem divinae spiritualitatis trahimur, inquantum a temporalibus removemur. unde contemptores temporalium spirituales dicuntur: et hoc convenit sibi inquantum procedit ut amor, qui habet rationem primi doni in quo omnia dona donantur. alia ratio est quia est amor patris in filium, quo se diligunt; et amantem et amatum dicimus in spiritu uniri.According to this [account], therefore, I say that 'spirit', insofar as it names the subtlety of a nature, is common to the three Persons; but for a twofold reason the Holy Spirit is named from spirituality. One reason and the chief is, as I believe, that through Him and the gift of Him we are drawn into participation of divine spirituality insofar as we are removed from temporal things; hence, those who are contemptuous of temporal things are called 'spiritual'. And this belongs to Him insofar as He proceeds as love, which has the account of the first gift in which all gifts are given. Another reason is that He is the love of the Father into the Son [and conversely], by which they love each other; and we say that the lover and the beloved are 'united in spirit.'
ad primum ergo dicendum, quod hoc quod dico, spiritus sanctus, potest dupliciter considerari: vel quantum ad virtutem vocabulorum, et sic convenit toti trinitati prout sumitur in virtute duarum dictionum; vel quantum ad impositionem ecclesiae, per quam hoc impositum est ad significandum unam personam, quasi circumlocutio unius nominis, propter defectum vocabulorum, quia linguae nostrae deficiunt a narratione dei; et sic proprie convenit spiritui sancto. et rationem convenientiae assignat augustinus in littera. quia enim est communitas patris et filii, decet ut communi nomine nominetur. To the first, therefore, it should be said that when I say 'Holy Spirit', this can be considered in two ways: either with respect to the force [virtus] of the words, and in this way it belongs to the whole Trinity, exactly as it is taken in force of the two words; or with respect to the imposition of [=the meaning given by] the Church, through which this [name] is imposed in order to signify one Person -- a circumlocution, as it were, of one [common] name owing to the defectiveness of our vocabulary, since our tongues fall short in telling of God; and in this way it belongs properly to the Holy Spirit [as a distinct Person]. And Augustine assigns the rationale of fittingness in the text, for since He is the common unity [communitas] of Father and Son, it is fitting that He should be named by a common name.
ad secundum dicendum, quod ex ratione suae processionis spiritus sanctus procedit ut amor; et inquantum est amor, convenit sibi quod nominetur per spiritualitatem, ut dictum est, in corp. art., et sic aliquo modo nomen spiritus sancti quemdam modum processionis exprimit, quia amoris.To the second, it should be said that the Holy Spirit, from the account of His procession, proceeds as love; and insofar as He is love, it belongs to Him that He [especially] should be named through spirituality, as was said in the body of the article, and thus in some way the name of Holy Spirit does express a certain mode of procession, since it is one of love.
ad tertium dicendum, quod spiritus per prius dicitur de divinis quam de corporeis, sicut praedictum est, loc. cit., et ideo objectio illa non tenet; nec credo ab illa similitudine spiritum sanctum vocari.To the third, it should be said that 'spirit' is said by priority of divine things over bodily things, as was said before in the placed cited, and therefore that objection does not hold; nor do I believe that the Holy Spirit is named from that likeness [of two lovers breathing together].
ad quartum dicendum, quod, sicut dicit dionysius, sanctitas est ab omni immunditia libera et perfecta et immaculata munditia; et ideo convenienter sanctitas spiritualitati adjungitur, quae etiam a materialitate separationem dicit, ut sic per spiritualitatem designetur separatio a materia, et per sanctitatem a materialibus defectibus. vel dicendum, quod natura semper eodem modo operatur; et ideo in opere naturae non est invenire rectum et non rectum, sicut in opere voluntatis. et ideo convenienter sanctitas, quae rectitudinem voluntatis importat, adjungitur processioni amoris, et non generationi, quae est opus naturae.To the fourth, it should be said that, in the words of Dionysius, sanctity is free from all uncleanness, and is perfect and immaculate cleanness; and therefore 'sanctity' is fittingly adjoined to 'spirituality', which also bespeaks separation from materiality, since by 'spirituality' separation from matter is designated, and by 'sanctity' separation from material defects. Or it may be said that nature always operates in the same way, so that as a result one cannot find the right and the not right in the work of nature, as one can find them both in the work of the will; therefore 'sanctity', which implies rectitude of will, is fittingly adjoined to the procession of love and not to that of generation, which is the work of nature.


© Peter Kwasniewski
(pak@wyomingcatholiccollege.com)

The Aquinas Translation Project
(http://www4.desales.edu/~philtheo/loughlin/ATP/index.html)