I Sentences, Distinction 10
The Holy Spirit as Love

Art. 2: utrum spiritus sanctus sit amor quem habet pater in filiumArt. 2: Whether the Holy Spirit is the love which the Father has into the Son
ad secundum sic proceditur. Proceeding thus to the second.
videtur quod spiritus sanctus non sit amor quem pater habet in filium vel e contrario. quidquid enim procedit in aliud tendens, non procedit ut per se subsistens. sed spiritus sanctus procedit ut persona subsistens per se. ergo non procedit in filium.Obj. 1: It seems that the Holy Spirit is not the love which the Father has into the Son or the converse. For whatever proceeds by tending into another does not proceed as subsisting in itself. But the Holy Spirit proceeds as a Person subsisting in Himself. Therefore He does not proceed into the Son.
item, quod procedit in aliquid, recipitur in illo, nisi sit ex defectu recipientis. sed in filio non est aliquis defectus. si ergo spiritus sanctus procedit a patre ut in filium, filius recipit spiritum sanctum. sed quidquid filius recipit a patre, recipit per generationem. ergo processio per quam spiritus sanctus procedit a patre in filium, est generatio, vel etiam prius secundum rationem, sicut quod includitur in illa.Obj. 2: Again, that which proceeds into something is received into it, unless the recipient is defective. But there is no defect in the Son. If therefore the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father as into the Son, the Son receives the Holy Spirit. But whatever the Son receives from the Father, He receives through generation. Therefore the procession through which the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father into the Son is generation, or even prior in account, as something included in that.
praeterea, etsi filius aliquid accipiat a patre, tamen pater nihil accipit a filio. ergo cum illud in quod est aliquid, se habeat in ratione recipientis, nullo modo poterit dici spiritus sanctus amor quem habet filius in patrem.Obj.3: Further, even if the Son receives something from the Father, nevertheless the Father receives nothing from the Son. Therefore since "that into which something is [received]" belongs to the ratio of the one receiving, in no way will the Holy Spirit be able to be called the love which the Son has into the Father.
contra, omnis amor procedit ab amante in amatum. sed spiritus sanctus est amor, ut supra dictum est, art. anteced. in resp. ad 4. ergo videtur, cum pater amet filium et e contrario, quod spiritus sanctus sit amor patris in filium et e contrario.Against this: All love proceeds from the lover into the beloved. But the Holy Spirit is love, as was said above (in the preceding article, ad 4). Therefore it seems that, since the Father loves the Son and the converse, the Holy Spirit is the love of the Father into the Son and the converse.
praeterea, hoc videtur per auctoritatem hieronymi in littera.Further, this is seen through the authority of Jerome in the text.
respondeo dicendum, quod in processione spiritus sancti est considerare duo: scilicet processionem ipsam, et modum procedendi. et quia spiritus sanctus procedit ut res distincta et per se existens, non habet ex processione sua, inquantum processio est, quod sit a patre in filium, vel e contrario; sed quod sit in se subsistens. si autem consideretur modus processionis quia procedit ut amor, ut dictum est, art. praec., ad 2, cum amatum secundum rationem intelligendi sit id in quod terminatur amor, et amans a quo exit amor: cum pater amet filium, potest dici amor patris in filium; et cum filius amet patrem, amor filii in patrem.I respond: it should be said that there are two things to consider in the procession of the Holy Spirit: the procession itself and the mode of proceeding. And since the Holy Spirit proceeds as a thing distinct and existing per se, He does not have His being 'from the Father into the Son' or the converse from the procession qua procession, but rather His being 'subsisting in itself'. If, however, the mode of procession is considered, then since He proceeds as love (as was said in the preceding article, ad 2), and since according to their intelligible accounts the beloved is that in which love has its term and the lover that from which love goes out, thus it is that because the Father loves the Son, the Holy Spirit can be called the love of the Father into the Son, and because the Son loves the Father, He can be called the love of the Son into the Father.
et per hoc patet solutio ad primum. quia spiritus sanctus non habet ut sit amor unius personae in aliam ex hoc quod est persona procedens, sed ex hoc quod procedit ut amor.And through this the solution to the first is evident. For the Holy Spirit does not have His being the love of one Person into another from this, that He is a Person proceeding, but from this, that He proceeds as love.
ad secundum dicendum, quod cum dicitur filius amari a patre, non praedicatur secundum rem quod filius aliquid a patre accipiat, sed quod terminetur in ipsum actus amoris; et ideo hoc quod dicitur esse spiritus sanctus amor patris in filium, non pertinet ad generationem, sed ad spiritus sancti processionem.To the second, it should be said that when the Son is said to be loved by the Father, it is not being predicated, in terms of the thing itself [secundum rem], that the Son receives something from the Father, but rather [it means] that the act of love has its term in Him. And therefore when the Holy Spirit is said to be the love of the Father into the Son, this does not pertain to generation but to the procession of the Holy Spirit.
et per hoc patet solutio ad tertium. quia sicut cum dicitur, quod pater habet amorem in seipsum, non significatur ibi aliqua terminatio vel acceptio secundum rem, sed tantum secundum modum significandi; ita etiam cum dicitur spiritus sanctus amor filii in patrem, non ponitur quod pater aliquid accipiat, nisi quod secundum modum significandi in ipsum terminatur amor filii, sicut in amatum.And through this reply the solution to the third is evident. For just as, when we say that the Father "has love unto Himself", we do not there signify any termination or reception according to the thing itself but only according to our mode of signifying, so too, when we call the Holy Spirit "the love of the Son into the Father", we are not positing that the Father receives anything, except that, according to our mode of signifying, the love of the Son has its term in Him as in the beloved.

© Peter Kwasniewski

The Aquinas Translation Project