I Sentences, Distinction 10
The Holy Spirit as Love

Art. 1: utrum spiritus sanctus procedat ut amorArt. 1: Whether the Holy Spirit proceeds as love
ad primum sic proceditur.Proceeding thus to the first.
videtur quod spiritus sanctus non procedat ut amor. quia spiritus sanctus procedit ut persona in se subsistens. amor autem non significat aliquid per modum subsistentis; immo per modum inhaerentis formae, vel passionis. ergo etc..Obj. 1: It seems that the Holy Spirit does not proceed as love. For the Holy Spirit proceeds as a Person subsisting in Himself. But love does not signify anything through the mode of something subsisting, but rather through the mode of an inhering form or of passion. Therefore, the Holy Spirit does not proceed as love.
praeterea, nunquam natura communicatur nisi per actum naturae. sed amor non significat actum naturae, sed magis voluntatis. ergo cum per processionem spiritus sancti communicetur tota divina natura personae procedenti, videtur quod spiritus sanctus non procedat ut amor.Obj. 2: Further, nature is communicated only through an act of nature. But love does not signify an act of nature, but rather of will. Therefore since through the procession of the Holy Spirit the whole divine nature is communicated to the Person proceeding, it seems that the Holy Spirit does not proceed as love.
praeterea, non est idem modus processionis creaturae et personae divinae. sed creaturae procedunt a deo per actum voluntatis, cujus opus est creatio, secundum damascenum. ergo nulla persona divina procedit per modum amoris, qui est actus voluntatis.Obj. 3: Further, of the creature and of a divine Person there is not the same mode of procession. But creatures proceed from God through an act of will, the work of which is creation, according to Damascene. Therefore no divine Person proceeds through the mode of love, which is an act of will.
item, modus processionis personae est proprius personae procedenti, quia per processionem distinguitur una persona ab alia. sed amor est commune tribus personis, ut dicitur in littera. ergo nulla persona ut amor procedit.Obj. 4: Again, a Person's mode of procession is proper to the Person proceeding, since one Person is distinguished from another through the procession. But love is common to the three Persons, as is said in the text. Therefore no Person proceeds as love.
praeterea, non est idem appropriatum et proprium, quia appropriatum sumitur juxta rationem proprii: unde sapientia, quae appropriatur filio, nulli personae propria est. sed amor, ut dicitur in littera, est appropriatum spiritui sancto. ergo non est proprius modus suae processionis ut procedat ut amor.Obj. 5: Further, appropriated and proper are not the same, since what is appropriated is taken next to the account of what is proper; hence, wisdom, which is appropriated to the Son, is proper to no Person. But love, as is said in the text, is appropriated to the Holy Spirit. Therefore that He should proceed as love is not the proper mode of His procession.
contra, imago creata, quae est in anima, repraesentat trinitatem in creatura. sed in imagine creata procedit aliquid per modum notitiae, et aliquid per modum amoris. cum igitur in trinitate increata procedat filius per modum notitiae, erit alia persona procedens per modum amoris.Against this: the created image which is in the soul represents the Trinity in the creature. But in the created image something proceeds through the mode of knowledge, and something proceeds through the mode of love. Since therefore in the uncreated Trinity the Son proceeds through the mode of knowledge, there will be another Person proceeding through the mode of love.
item, cognitio perfecta non est, nisi adjungatur voluntas. sed sicut se habet intellectus ad voluntatem, ita et verbum ad amorem. ergo verbum non erit perfectum sine amore. sed verbum dei perfectum est. ergo et associatur sibi amor perfectus; et hic est spiritus sanctus.Again, knowledge is not perfect unless will is conjoined [to it]. But as the intellect stands to the will, so the word stands to love. Therefore the word will not be perfect without love. But the Word of God is perfect; therefore perfect love is associated with it, and this is the Holy Spirit.
respondeo dicendum, quod in processione creaturarum duo est considerare ex parte ipsius creatoris: scilicet naturam ex cujus plenitudine et perfectione omnis creaturae perfectio et efficitur et exemplatur, ut supra dictum est, dist. 2, qu. unic., art. 2, et voluntatem, ex cujus liberalitate, non naturae necessitate, haec omnia creaturae conferuntur. supposita autem, secundum fidem nostram, processione divinarum personarum in unitate essentiae, ad cujus probationem ratio sufficiens non invenitur, oportet processionem personarum, quae perfecta est, esse rationem et causam processionis creaturae. unde sicut processionem creaturarum naturae divinae perfectionem imperfecte repraesentantium reducimus in perfectam imaginem, divinam perfectionem plenissime continentem, scilicet filium, tamquam in principium, et quasi naturalis processionis creaturarum a deo, secundum scilicet imitationem naturae, exemplar et rationem; ita oportet quod, inquantum processio creaturae est ex liberalitate divinae voluntatis, reducatur in unum principium, quod sit quasi ratio totius liberalis collationis. haec autem est amor, sub cujus ratione omnia a voluntate conferuntur; et ideo oportet aliquam personam esse in divinis procedentem per modum amoris, et haec est spiritus sanctus. et inde est quod quidam philosophi totius naturae principium amorem posuerunt.I respond: it should be said that there are two things to consider in the procession of creatures, on the part of the Creator Himself: viz., the nature from whose plenitude and perfection the perfection of every creature is both made and exemplated, as was said above (d. 2, qu. un., a. 2); and will, from the liberality of which, not from a necessity of nature, all these things were conferred upon creatures. Now, letting it be granted, in accordance with our faith, that there is procession of divine Persons in the unity of essence (for the proof of which a sufficient reason [=an argument that can demonstrate it] is not to be found), this procession of Persons, which is perfect, must be the account and cause of the creature's procession. Hence, just as we trace back the procession of creatures imperfectly representing the perfection of the divine nature to the perfect image containing the divine perfection most fully, viz., the Son, as to a principle, and as if [the former procession were] a natural procession of creatures from God, viz., according to the imitation of [His] nature [and according to the] exemplar and idea [He has of what He makes], so too it is necessary that the procession of creatures, inasmuch as it is from the liberality of the divine will, should be traced back to one principle which is the account, as it were, of the whole liberal giving [collatio]. Now this is love, under the account of which all things are conferred by the will; and therefore [having already granted the truth of divine processions,] there must be some Person in God proceeding through the mode of love, and this is the Holy Spirit. Hence it is that certain philosophers posited love as the principle of the whole of nature.
ad primum ergo dicendum, quod licet amor, inquantum amor, non dicat quid perfectum et subsistens; tamen inquantum est dei amor, a quo omnis imperfectio removetur, habet quod sit perfectum quid et subsistens; et simile est de verbo.To the first, therefore, it should be said that although love qua love does not bespeak something perfect and subsistent, nevertheless insofar as it is God's love, from which every imperfection is removed, it has [the nature of] something perfect and subsisting; and it is similar with the Word.
ad secundum dicendum, quod sicut per primum processum naturae communicatur tota natura divina, cum sit perfectus; ita et per primum processum voluntatis, qui est ratio omnis processionis voluntariae a deo, communicatur tota voluntas; et quia in deo idem est voluntas et natura, nec tota voluntas, quae infinita est, posset esse nisi in natura infinita; et non nisi boni infiniti, quasi objecti aequantis infinitam voluntatem (unde nec amor, qui est ratio voluntatis, potest esse nisi infinitus); ideo oportet etiam communicari naturam. unde amor, quamvis non dicat communicationem naturae inquantum est amor, dicit tamen inquantum est amor dei et primus processus divinae voluntatis.To the second, it should be said that just as the whole divine nature is communicated through the first procession of nature, since it is perfect, so also the whole will is communicated through the first procession of will, which is the ratio of every voluntary procession from God; and since will and nature are the same in God, and since the whole will, which is infinite, cannot be except in an infinite nature and of an infinite good, as of an object equaling, as it were, the infinite will (so that neither can the corresponding love, which is the ratio of will, be other than infinite), therefore [the infinite] nature must be communicated as well. Hence love, although it does not bespeak communication of nature insofar as it is love, nevertheless bespeaks it insofar as it is God's love and the first procession of the divine will.
ad tertium dicendum, quod creatura procedit a voluntate sicut res operata per voluntatem; sed spiritus sanctus sicut ratio cujuslibet operis voluntatis, sicut etiam filius producitur ut ars omnium eorum quae per intellectum divinum constituta sunt.To the third, it should be said that creatures proceed from the [divine] will as things worked by the will, but the Holy Spirit proceeds as the ratio of any work of will whatsoever, just as the Son, too, is 'produced' as the 'art' of all those things which are constituted by the divine intellect.*

[*i.e., the Holy Spirit is not a work of will, nor is the Son is not constituted as an artifact; the Holy Spirit is the ratio of works willed, as the Son is the ratio of works conceived].

ad quartum dicendum, quod amor in divinis tripliciter sumitur. quandoque enim sumitur essentialiter, quandoque personaliter, quandoque notionaliter. quando sumitur essentialiter, non dicit aliquam processionem vel relationem realem, sed tantum rationis, sicut etiam cum de deo dicimus intelligens et intellectum: eadem enim persona potest esse intelligens et intellecta. quando autem dicitur personaliter, tunc importatur processio et relatio realis, et significatur ipsa persona, sive res procedens, sicut amor est quoddam procedens. quando autem dicitur notionaliter, significat ipsam rationem processionis personae: quia amor non tantum est procedens, sed etiam dicit rationem sub qua alia procedunt. secundum ergo quod est essentiale, est commune tribus, sed appropriatur spiritui sancto; ut cum dicitur, deus caritas est, 1 joan. 4, 16; secundum autem quod est personale, est proprium spiritus sancti; et dicitur, quod spiritus sanctus procedit ut amor. secundum autem quod est notionale, est quaedam relatio vel notio communis patri et filio, quae etiam dicitur communis spiratio; et hoc modo significatur amor in hoc verbo diligunt: cum dicitur, pater et filius diligunt se spiritu sancto.To the fourth, it should be said that 'love' in God is taken in three ways, for sometimes it is taken essentially, sometimes personally, and sometimes notionally. When it is taken essentially, it does not bespeak any procession or real relation, but only one of reason, as also when we say of God "understanding and understood", for one and the same person can be both understanding and understood. When it is said personally, however, then procession and real relation are implied, and [either] the Person Himself is signified, or a thing proceeding, as love is a certain thing proceeding. But when it is said notionally, it signifies the account itself of the procession of the Person, since love is not only proceeding but also bespeaks the account under which other things proceed. Therefore insofar as love is essential, it is common to the Three but appropriated to the Holy Spirit, as when it is said that God is charity (1 Jn. 4:16); insofar as it is personal, it is proper to the Holy Spirit and [in this way] it is said that the Holy Spirit proceeds 'as love'; but insofar as it is notional, it is a certain relation or notion common to the Father and the Son, which is also called 'common spiration': and it is in this way that 'love' is signified in the verb 'they love', when it is said: "The Father and the Son love themselves by the Holy Spirit."
ad quintum dicendum, quod amor, secundum quod est proprium, non est appropriatum. sapientia autem ita est appropriata quod nunquam potest esse proprium. et ratio hujus est, quia sapientia non significatur per modum alicujus exeuntis ab aliquo, sed per modum quiescentis in subjecto; et ideo semper est essentialis, et nunquam personalis. sed amor significatur per modum exitus; nihilominus tamen significat aliquid absolutum. exitus autem ille potest intelligi ut realis, vel secundum rationem tantum. ex parte ergo qua significat aliquid absolutum, est essentiale; et tunc relatio, vel exitus importatus, erit rationis tantum, sicut cum dicitur idem eidem idem. quando autem ille exitus significatur non tantum ut rationis, sed ut realis, tunc amorem significat personalem.
To the fifth, it should be said that love, according as it is proper [to the Holy Spirit], is not appropriated. But wisdom is appropriated in such a way that it can never be proper. The reason for this is that wisdom is not signified through the mode of anything going out from anything, but rather through the mode of something resting in a subject, and therefore it is always essential and never personal. Love, on the other hand, is signified through the mode of a going-out, yet it nonetheless signifies something absolute. Now, that going-out can be understood as [something] real or [something] according to reason alone. On the part of its signifying something absolute, it is essential [in God], and then the relation or going-out implied will be one of reason alone, as when it is said that "the same is the same as the same". When, on the other hand, that going-out is signified not only as [a being] of reason but also as [something] real, then love signifies something personal.


© Peter Kwasniewski
(pak@wyomingcatholiccollege.com)

The Aquinas Translation Project
(http://www4.desales.edu/~philtheo/loughlin/ATP/index.html)