Psalm 2

a. Quare fremuerunt gentes, et populi meditati sunt inania? Astiterunt reges terrae, et principes convenerunt in unum adversus Dominum, et adversus Christum eius.Why have the gentiles raged, and the people devised useless things? The kings of the earth have stood up, and princes have met together, against the Lord, and against his Christ.
b. Dirumpamus vincula eorum, et proiiciamus a nobis iugum ipsorum.Let us break their chains, and throw aside their yoke from us.
c. Qui habitat in caelis irridebit eos, et Dominus subsannabit eos. Tunc loquetur ad eos in ira sua, et in furore suo conturbabit eos.He who dwells in the heavens shall laugh at them, and the Lord shall mock them. Then shall he speak to them in his anger, and in his rage he shall throw them into confusion.
d. Ego autem constitutus sum rex ab eo, super Syon montem sanctum eius, praedicans praeceptum eius.But I have been appointed king by him, over Sion his holy mountain, proclaiming his rule.
e. Dominus dixit ad me, Filius meus es tu, ego hodie genui te.The Lord said to me, You are my son, this day have I begotten you.
f. Postula a me, et dabo tibi gentes haereditatem tuam, et possessionem tuam terminos terrae.Ask of me, and I will give you the gentiles for your inheritance, and the outermost parts of the earth for your possession.
g. Reges eos in virga ferrea, et tanquam vas figuli confringes eos.You shall rule them with an iron rod, and shall break them in pieces like a potter's vessel.
h. Et nunc reges intelligite: erudimini qui iudicatis terram.And now, O kings, understand: receive instruction, you who have judged the earth.
i. Servite Domino in timore, et exultate ei cum tremore. Apprehendite disciplinam, ne quando irascatur Dominus, et pereatis de via iusta.Serve the Lord with fear, and exalt him with trembling. Embrace discipline lest at any time the Lord becomes angry, and you perish from the just way.
j. Cum exarserit in brevi ira eius, beati omnes qui confidunt in eo.When his anger shall be kindled in a short time, blessed are all of them who trust in him.
a. Praemisso psalmo, in quo quasi universaliter descripsit statum et processum humani generis, in hoc procedit ad materiam propriam, scilicet tribulationes suas signantes tribulationes Christi:In the prior psalm, wherein the psalmist generally described, as it were, the state and progression of the human species, in this one, he procedes to a definite matter, namely his tribulations, signifying the tribulations of Christ.
et circa hoc tria facit. Primo implorat divinum auxilium contra tribulationes imminentes orando. Secundo gratias agit exauditus, et hoc in octavo psalmo: Domine Dominus noster, quam admirabile est nomen tuum in universa terra? Tertio ostendit fiduciam inde conceptam, et hoc in decimo psalmo, In Domino confido, quodmodo dicitis animae meae, transmigra in montem sicut passer.And concerning this he does three things. First, he invokes divine help against imminent tribulations by praying, second, he gives thanks for having been heard, and this, in the eighth psalm, O Lord, our Lord, how wonderful is your name in all the earth, and third, he shows the confidence received therefrom, and this, in the tenth psalm, In the Lord I put my trust: how then do you say to my soul, take yourself away from this place to the mountain like a sparrow.
In tribulationibus autem potest homo duo petere. Primo petit, ut liberetur. Secundo, ut hostes deprimantur; et hoc facit in septimo psalmo, Domine Deus meus in te.In his tribulations, a man can pray for two reasons. First, he prays so that he might be freed, and second so that his enemies might be overwhelmed; and he does this in the seventh psalm, O Lord, my God, in you.
Circa primum duo facit. Primo implorat auxilium contra tribulantes. Secundo contra decipere molientes, et hoc in quinto psalmo, Verba me.Concerning the first he does two things. First, he implores help against those distressing him, and second, against those attempting to ensnare him, and this, in the fifth psalm, Give ear, O Lord, to my words.
Circa primum tria facit. Primo commemorat machinationes insurgentium contra ipsum. Secundo implorat auxilium contra iam insurgentes, et hoc in tertio psalmo, Domine quid multiplicati. Tertio confidens se exauditum invitat alios ad confidendum de Deo, et hoc in quarto psalmo, Cum invocarem.Concerning the first, he does three things. First, he recalls the contrivances of those rising up against him, second, he implores help against those now rising up, and this, in the third psalm, Why, O Lord, are they multiplied (that afflict me), and third, trusting that he has been heard, he invites others to trust in God, and this, in the fourth psalm, When I called upon him.
Sed attendendum est, quod totus iste psalmus nihil continet de oratione, sed de malitia insurgentium. Circa quem psalmum in generali sciendum est, quod de eo fuit duplex opinio.But it must be observed that this entire psalm contains nothing concerning prayer, but rather of the malice of those rising up. Concerning this psalm in general it must be noted there was a twofold opinion about it.
Quidem enim dixerunt, quod idem est cum primo psalmo, et haec fuit Gamalielis. Et propter hoc dicebant, quod sicut ille psalmus, Beatus vir qui etc. ita iste quasi pars ipsius finit: Beati omnes qui confidunt in eo, ut sit quasi circularis.For some said that it is the same as the first psalm, and this was the opinion of Gamaliel. And on account of this they used to say that just as that psalm, Blessed is the man who etc. so too does it finish this very one, being, as it were, a part of it: Blessed are all of them who trust in him, so that it is, as it were, circular.
Sed contra hoc sunt duo. Primo quia sic non essent centum quinquaginta psalmi.But there are two points against this argument. First, because as such there would not be one hundred and fifty psalms.
Sed ad hoc respondetur, quia addunt unum qui invenitur in pluribus psalteriis: et incipit, Pusillus eram etc.But to this it may be responded that they add one other psalm which is found in several psalters. And it begins, I was small etc.
Et secundo, quia in hebraeo psalmi secundum ordinem literarum ordinantur ut quotus sit psalmus statim occurrat: nam in primo est Aleph, ad designandum quod sit primus: in secundo est Beth, ut designetur quod sit secundus in tertio est Gimel, et sic est in aliis.Second, because in the hebrew, the psalms are ordered according to the order of the letters (of the alphabet) so that the psalm occurs in its proper place. For in the first place is Aleph, to designate that it is first; in the second is Beth, to designate that it is second, in third is Gimel, and so it is with the rest.
Quia ergo Beth, quae litera est secunda in ordine alphabeti, ponitur in principio huius psalmi, patet quod est secundus psalmus, et hoc tenet Augustinus.Therefore, because Beth, which is the second letter in the order of the alphabet, is positioned at the beginning of this psalm, it is clear that it is the second psalm - this is Augustine's position on the matter.
Dicendum est ergo, quod psalmus iste in ordine psalmorum est secundus, sed primus in titulo: et hic est titulus eius.Therefore, let it be said that this very psalm is second in the order of psalms, but first in the title: and this is its title.
Psalmus proprie dicitur a psalterio, quod est quoddam instrumentum decachordum, quod manu tangitur: unde dicitur a psallere, quod est manu tangere, et habet tactum a superiori: unde psalmus proprie dicitur canticum, quod David cantabat, vel cantari faciebat ad psalterium.'Psalm' is properly named from 'Psalterium', which is a ten-stringed instrument played with the hand. Thus, it is named from 'Psallere', which means to play upon a stringed instrument with one's hand, which touches from above. Thus, a psalm is properly called a song, which David sang, or had it sung on the psalterium.
Mystice autem per decachordum psalterium signatur lex Dei, quae in decem praeceptis consistit, et oportet quod tangatur manu, idest bona operatione, et a superiori, quia praecepta sunt implenda propter spem aeternorum, alias tangeretur ex inferiori.Mystically speaking, however, by the ten strings of the psalterium is signified the law of God, which consists in ten commandments, and it is appropriate that it be touched with the hand, that is with good performance, and from above, because these commandments are to be satisfied according to the hope of eternal life, otherwise it would be touched from what is below.
Est ergo psalmus David, quia ab eo compositus, et de regno eius in figura regni Christi agit. Per David enim Christus convenienter significatur, quia David dicitur manu fortis, et Christus Dei virtus, 1 Cor. 1.Therefore, this psalm is David's, because it was composed by him, and it treats of his kingdom in the figure of the kingdom of Christ. For by David, Christ is suitably signified, because David is said to be brave in battle, and Christ, the power of God - 1. Cor. 1.
Dicitur etiam David aspectu desiderabilis, et Christus splendor gloriae, Heb. 1. Ipse est in quem desiderant angeli prospicere, 1 Pet. 1.David is also said to be desirable in appearance, and Christ, the splendor of glory - Hebrews 1; He it is on whom the angels desire to look (1 Peter 1).
Quare fremuerunt gentes, et populi meditati sunt inania?Why have the gentiles raged, and the people devised useless things?
Psalmus iste dividitur in duas partes. In prima narratur machinatio molientium contra regnum David, et Christi. In secunda ponitur eorum repressio, ibi, Qui habitat in caelis irridebit eos.This psalm is divided into two parts. In the first is related the trickery of those struggling against the kingdom of David and of Christ. In the second is described their repression, at, He who dwells in the heavens shall laugh at them.
Circa primum tria facit. Primo narrat machinantium rebellionem. Secundo contra quem machinatur. Tertio propositum machinantium. Secundum ibi, Adversus Dominum. Tertium ibi, Dirumpamus vincula eorum.Concerning the first he does three things. First, he tells of the rebellion of those who are plotting, second, who is being plotted against, and third, the intention of those who are plotting. The second is at, Against the Lord, and the third, at, Let us break their chains.
Primo ergo historialiter sciendum, quod quando populus molitur rebellionem, primo surgit murmur in populo, post accedit auxilium magnatum ad perficiendum.Thus, the first ought to be understood historically, because when a people attempts rebellion, a murmuring first arises among them, after which they elicit the help of important men to accomplish the task.
Primo ergo ponit conatum populi murmurantis. Secundo auxilium magnatum, ibi, Astiterunt reges terrae, et principes convenerunt in unum.Therefore, he first describes the effort of the murmuring people, and second, the help of important men, at, The kings of the earth have stood up, and princes have met together.
In populo autem sunt quidam minus habentes de ratione, qui sunt impetuosi: quidam plus, qui cauti dicuntur.Among the people, some are impetuous, having a deficiency of the rational powers, while others, having more of these, are called cautious.
Primi non moventur sensu ad rebellandum, sed magis impetu; et ideo dicit de his, Fremuerunt, quod est bestiarum: Prov. 19. Sicut fremitus leonis ita et regis ira.The former are not moved sensitively so as to rebel, but rather impulsively; and thus concerning these people he says, Raged, which is of the beasts - Proverbs 19: As the raging of a lion so also is the anger of a king.
Secundo moventur consilio; et ideo de his dicit, Meditati sunt inania. Quia vanae sunt cogitationes hominum, Ps. 93.The latter, however, are moved by counsel; and thus concerning these people he says, Devised useless things - (The Lord knows) that the thoughts of men are vain (Psalm 93).
Populus est multitudo hominum iuris consensu sociata. Et ideo Iudaei dicuntur populus, quia cum lege et sub lege Dei sunt. Alii dicuntur gentes, quia non sunt sub lege Dei.A people is a multitude of men associated by legal consent. And thus the Jews are called a people, because they are with and under the law of God. The rest are called gentiles, because they are not under the law of God.
Vel ad literam. In regno David erant gentes subiugatae, et Iudaei fideles, et utrique moliebantur contra eum, ideo dicit, Quare fremuerunt gentes, et populi meditati sunt inania. Non interrogat, sed increpat, sicut ibi Sap. 5. Quid nobis profuit superbia, aut divitiarum iactantia quid contulit nobis?Or literally. In David's kingdom, there were subjugated gentiles and faithful Jews, and both struggled against him. Thus he says, Why have the gentiles raged, and the people devised useless things? He does not ask, but rebukes, as at Wisdom 5: What has pride profited us, or what advantage has the boasting of riches brought us?
Item minores nihil per se facere possent, nisi haberent auxilium maiorum: unde ponit quosdam praebentes auxilium: primo per potentiam adiuvando: et quantum ad hoc dicit, Astiterunt reges terrae, et principes convenerunt in unum adversus Dominum, et adversus Christum eius; quasi dicat, illi fremuerunt, sed alii astiterunt, idest affuerunt huic malitiae.Again, people of lower station could do nothing, unless they had the help of those who were greater. Thus he describes those supplying help, first, through the power in the one helping. And with respect to this he says, The kings of the earth have stood up, and princes have met together, against the Lord, and against his Christ, as if he were saying, Some have raged, but others have stood up, that is, they have assisted in this malice.
Item quidam praebuerunt auxilium per sapientiam consulendo; et quantum ad hoc dicit, Convenerunt in unum, scilicet ad consiliandum.Again, some supply help through wisdom in the one giving advice; and with respect to this he says, They have met together, namely, so as to deliberate.
Literam Hieronymi habet tractabant pariter: Hier. 5. Ibo igitur ad optimates, et loquar eis: ipsi enim cognoverunt viam Domini, et iudicium Dei sui etc. Jerome's version has they have negotiated together - Jeremiah 5: Therefore I will go to the great men and I will speak to them: for they have known the way of the Lord, and the judgement of their God etc.
Deinde cum dicit, Adversus Dominum, et adversus Christum eius etc. ponit patientes rebellionem. Ostendit enim contra quos fuit rebellio, quia contra Dominum, et contra regem eius: Reges enim dicuntur Christi, idest uncti: Ps. 5. Nolite tangere Christos meos.Then when he says, Against the Lord, and against his Christ etc., he describes those suffering the rebellion. He shows against whom the rebellion is waged, that is against the Lord and against his king - kings are called Christs, that is, annointed ones - Psalm 104: Do not touch my Christs.
Qui ergo rebellat regni instituto per Deum, rebellat etiam Deo: Rom. 13. Qui potestati resistit, Dei ordinationi resistit. Et ideo dicit, Adversus Dominum, et adversus Christum eius: Rom. 8. Non te abiecerunt, sed me.Therefore, he who rebels against a kingdom established by God, rebels also against God - Romans 13: He who resists the power, resists the ordinace of God. And thus he says, Against God and against his Christ - Samuel 8: They have not thrown you aside, but me.
Mystice haec dicta sunt sub similitudine David de Christo: Act. 4. Domine tu dixisti per os patris nostri pueri tui David, quare fremuerunt gentes etc. Convenerunt enim vere in civitate ista adversus sanctum puerum tuum Iesum, quem unxisti etc.Mystically, these words were said under the likeness of David concerning Christ - Acts 4: O Lord, through the mouth of our father David, your servant, you have said, Why have the gentiles raged etc. They have surely assembled in this very city against your holy child Jesus, whom you have annointed etc.
Et secundum hoc intelligendum est, quod gentes, scilicet milites, convenerunt contra Christum: Et populi, scilicet Iudaei, meditati sunt inania, credentes eum occidere totaliter, scilicet quod non resurgeret: Et reges terrae, scilicet Herodes Ascalonita prior qui occidit infantes: et posterius Herodes Anthippas eiusdem filius qui Pilato consensit: Et principes, idest Pilatus, ut ponatur plurale pro singulari per synecdocham.And in accordance with this, it is to be understood that the gentiles, namely the soldiers, have assembled against Christ: And the people, namely the Jews, have devised useless things, believing that they killed him altogether, namely that he would not rise: And the kings of the earth, namely the earlier Herod of Ascalon, who killed the innocents, and the later Herod Antipas, his son, who concurred with Pilate: And the princes, that is Pilate, where a plural is used in place of a singular, by means of synecdoche (a figure of speech where the part is put for the whole, the cause for the effect, or the contrary, a proper for a common noun).
Vel principes sacerdotum convenerunt in unum, idest unam pravam voluntatem, adversus Dominum et adversus Christum eius.Or, the leaders of the priests have met together, that is, in one vicious will, against the Lord and against his Christ.
b. Consequenter ponit propositum machinantium: unde dicit, Dirumpamus vincula eorum etc.Consequently, the psalmist describes the intention of those plotting. Thus he says, Let us break their bonds etc.,
Quod proprie dicitur, nam regis dominium dicitur iugum: 3. Reg. 12. dicitur ad Roboam, quod alleviaret de iugo quod imposuerat eis Salomon. Sicut enim boves iunguntur iugo ad opus, ita homines ad dominium regni.which is properly said, for 'yoke' signifies 'royal power'. At 3 Kings 12, Roboam is asked (by the people of Israel) that he lighten the yoke which Solomon had placed upon them. Just as oxen are joined to a yoke for work, so too men to royal power.
Iugum autem removeri non potest, nisi solvantur vincula. Vincula autem sunt in regno illis quibus firmatur potestas regia in regno, sicut milites, castra, et arma. Primo ergo oportet ista dissolvere, et tunc removere iugum.However, a yoke cannot be removed unless the bonds are loosened. In a kingdom, bonds are those things by which the royal power is made firm, such as soldiers, forts and arms. Therefore, it is appropriate first to destroy these things, and then to remove the yoke.
Spiritualiter in Christo est iugum lex charitatis: Matt. 11. Iugum meum suare est etc.Spiritually, in Christ, the yoke is the law of charity - Matthew 11: My yoke is easy etc.
Vincula sunt virtutes, spes, fides, charitas: Ephes. 4. Soliciti servare unitatem spiritus, in vinculo pacis; Eccl. 6. Vincula illius alligatura salutaris.The bonds here are the virtues of faith, hope and charity - Ephesians 4: Careful to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace; Ecclesiasticus 6: Her bands are a healthful binding.
Quod ergo conscientia hominis non sit sub iugo legis Christi, non potest esse nisi prius rumpantur haec vincula: quod faciunt qui dicunt Deo, Recede a nobis, scientiam viarum tuarum nolumus etc. Iob 12. Hier. 2. A saeculo confregisti iugum, dirupisti vincula, et dixisti, non serviam.Therefore, unless these chains are broken first, it is impossible for a man's conscience not to be under the yoke of the law of Christ: which they do who say to God, Go away from us, we do not desire knowledge of your ways etc. (Job ?). Jeremiah 2: From of old you have broken (my) yoke into pieces, have burst (my) bonds, and have said, I will not serve.
Vel hoc dicitur in persona David a Christo ad suos servos: Glossa quasi ipsi ita moliuntur; sed o mei dirumpamus etc. sed non facit ad propositum.Or, this is said by Christ, in the person of David, to his servants: in the gloss, it is as if they themselves are struggling in this way; but O! let us break etc. of me, but not take up his intention.
c. Deinde cum dicit, Qui, ponitur oppressio molientium in regnum David. Et circa hoc duo facit. Primo ostenditur quomodo opprimuntur a Domino. Secundo quomodo a Christo eius, ibi, Ego autem constitutus etc.Next, when he says, He who dwells, he describes the oppresion of those struggling in the kingdom of David. And concerning this he does two things. It is shown how they are oppressed first by the Lord, and second, by his Christ, at, I have been appointed etc.
Contra hos, scilicet Dominum et contra Christum eius moliti sunt, ut dictum est. They struggle against these, namely the Lord and his Christ, as was said.
Circa primum nota quatuor, scilicet irrisionem, subsannationem, iratam locutionem, et conturbationem.Concerning the first, note four things, namely derision, mockery, angered speech, and confusion.
Nam sicut aliquis puer nullius virtutis et potestatis, si pugnat contra gigantem, irrideatur a gigaute, ita si aliquis nullius potestatis moliri vult contra eum qui habitat in caelis, irridetur ab eo: Iob 35. Suspice caelum et intuere et contemplare aethera, quod altius te sit. Si peccaveris quid ei nocebit? Et si perseveret impotens, tunc ille qui est potentior reprehendit et subsannat. For just as a boy of no strength and power, if he fights against a huge man, is laughed at by this man, so too if someone of no power wants to struggle against him who dwells in the heavens, is laughed at by him - Job 35: Look up to the sky and see, and behold the sky, that it is higher than you. If you sin, what shall you hurt him? And if the powerless one continues, then he who is more powerful rebukes and mocks him.
Irrisio namque fit bucca secundum Hieronymum in glossa, sed subsannatio rugato naso, atque contracto, ex quadam scilicet levi indignatione: Prov. 1. Ego quoque in interitu vestro ridebo, et subsannabo, cum vobis quod timebatis advenerit.Derision comes from the mouth, according to Jerome in a gloss, but mockery from a wrinkled and contracted nose, concerning some matter, namely a slight indignation - Proverbs 1: I also will laugh in your destruction, and will mock when that shall come to you which you feared.
Si autem nullo modo desistat, procedit ad vindictam; et ideo dicit, Tunc loquetur ad eos in ira sua, idest proferet sententiam vindictae contra eos: nam in Deum non cadit ira, sed quod est creaturae, aliquando attribuitur creatori per antropopatos, quod est humana propassio: Ps. 6. Domine ne in ira tua etc.However, if he in no way desists, he proceeds to vengeance. And thus he says, Then shall he speak to them in his anger, that is pass a sentence of vengeance against them. For anger does not belong to God, but rather to created beings, although at times it is attributed to the Creator by antropopatos, which is human propassion - Psalm 6: O Lord, rebuke me not in your anger etc.
Ultimo autem sententia executioni mandatur; et ideo dicit, Et in furore tuo conturbabis eos. In corde et in anima in aeterna poena, hoc est sua virtute punies eos: Iob 17. Cum se moverit ad quaerendum panem, novit; quod paratus sit in manu eius tenebrarum dies: terebit eum tribulatio, et angustia vallabit eum.Lastly, the sentence is carried into action. And thus he says, And in his rage, he shall throw them into confusion. In heart and mind into eternal punishment, it is by its power, you punish them - Job ?: When he moves himself to find bread, he knows; the day of death is readied in his hand: tribulation will waste him, and distress will fortify him.
Haec quatuor erunt in iudicio. Quia irridebit statuens eos a sinistris: Matth. 25. Subsannabit dicens: Esurivi etc. Improperando: Loquetur in ira. Sententiando: Ite maledicti in ignem aeternum etc. Conturbabit, sententiam exequendo: Ibunt hi in supplicium aeternum etc. These four will be in judgment, for he will deride them, setting them on his left - Matthew 25: He will mock them saying: I was hungry etc., reproaching them: He shall speak in anger, sentencing them: Depart from me, you cursed, into everlasting fire etc., and he will confuse, by carrying out the sentence: And these shall go into everlasting punishment etc.
d. Sequitur consequenter ostendere, quomodo comprimantur a Christo eius, cum dicit, Ego autem.Consequently, when he says, But I, he seeks to show how they are restrained by his Christ.
Insurrexerunt autem contra Christum David, populus, gentes, et principes. Primo ergo ostendit, quomodo Christus se habeat ad populum. Secundo quomodo ad gentes, ibi, Dominus dixit ad me. Tertio quomodo ad reges, ibi, Et nunc reges intelligite etc.The people, gentiles and princes rose up against Christ and David. Therefore, he first shows how Christ is related to the people, second, to the gentiles, at, The Lord said to me, and third, to the kings, at, And now, O kings, understand etc.
Dicit ergo, Ego autem constitutus sum rex ad eo super Syon montem sanctum eius etc. Sciendum est autem, quod constitutus est rex a Deo in Hierusalem, et sua praedicatione reduxit populum; quasi dicat, Illi sic faciunt, sed intentum suum habere non possunt, quia sum constitutus, idest stabilitus rex super Syon, idest super populum Iudaeorum, qui erat in Hierusalem, cuius arx est Syon: Ab eo, scilicet a Deo: Ps. 117. Dominus mihi adiutor, non timebo quid faciat mihi homo: Iob 17. Pone me Domine iuxta te, et cuiusvis manus pugnet contra me.Therefore he says, But I have been appointed king by him, over Sion his holy mountain etc. It must be recognized that the king is appointed in Jerusalem by God, and by his proclamation, he leads the people; it is as if he were saying, They act in that way, but they cannot not have his reach, because I have been appointed, that is, established king over Syon, that is, over the people of Israel, who were in Jerusalem, whose summit is Sion; By him, namely by God - Psalm 117: The Lord is my helper, I will not fear what man can do to me; Job 17: Deliver me, O Lord, and set me next to you, and let any man's hand fight against me.
Sum autem constitutus rex super Syon montem sanctum eius, non propter me, sed ut regam populum secundum legem Dei; et ideo dicit, Praedicans praeceptum eius.But I have been appointed king over Sion his holy mountain, not for me, but so that I might rule the people according to God's law; and thus he says, Proclaiming his rule.
Mystice autem constitutus est rex, secundum illud Hier. 23. Regnabit rex, et sapiens erit etc. Syon, idest ecclesiam Iudaeorum, quae dicitur mons sanctus, quia prius recepit radios solis: Matth. 14. Non sum missus nisi ad oves etc. 2. Reg. 19. An ignoro me hodie regem factum super Israel? Praedicans praeceptum, idest evangelium.Mystically, he is appointed king according to what is written at Jeremiah 23: A king shall reign, and shall be wise etc. Syon, that is the temple of the Jews, which is called the holy mountain, because it receives the first rays of the sun - Matthew ?: I was not sent except to the sheep etc.; 2 Kings 19: Do not I know that this day I am made king over Israel? Proclaiming his rule, that is, the gospel.
Vel illud speciale praeceptum de quo dicitur Io. 13. Mandatum novum do vobis, ut diligatis invicem: et eiusdem 15. Hoc est praeceptum meum etc.Or, that special rule which is spoken of at John 13: I give a new commandment to you, that you love one another: and John 15: This is my commandment etc.
Hoc autem praeceptum personaliter praedicavit Iudaeis, in persona scilicet propria: Matth. 4. Circuibat Iesus totam Galilaeam docens in synagogis eorum, et praedicans evangelium regni: Rom. 5. Dico autem Christum Iesum ministrum fuisse circumcisionis propter veritatem Dei etc.This rule is personally proclaimed to the Jews, in person, namely properly - Matthew 4: Jesus went about the whole of Galilee, teaching in their synagogues, and preaching the gospel of the kingdom; Romans 15: I say that Christ Jesus was minister of the circumcised for the truth of God etc.
e. Deinde cum dicit, Dominus, ex eadem historia ostenditur, quomodo se habet ad gentes; et circa hoc duo facit. Primo ostendit quod Christo convenit habere potestatem super gentes. Secundo ponit usum potestatis, Reges eos.Then when he says, Lord, it is shown from the same narrative how it is related to the gentiles, concerning which he does two things. First he shows that it is suitable for Christ to have power over the gentiles, and second, he describes the use of this power, at, You shall rule them.
Circa primum duo facit. Primo ostendit quo iure potestas sibi competit super gentes. Secundo ponit acceptionem ipsius potestatis, ibi, Dabo tibi gentes.Concerning the first he does two things. First, he shows by what right power over the gentiles is suitable to him, and second, he describes the acceptance of this very power, at, I will give you the gentiles.
Dicit ergo, Dominus dixit ad me, hoc non usquequaque completur de David; et ideo intelligitur de Christo cui competit dominium super gentes duplici iure, scilicet haereditario, et meritorio. Primo ergo ponit ius. Secundo meritum, ibi, Postula etc.Therefore he says, The Lord said to me, which is not always fulfilled concerning David; and thus it is understood concerning Christ to whom belongs dominion over the gentiles by right in a twofold way, namely by heredity and merit. Therefore he first describes the right, and second, the merit, at, Ask etc.
Est autem Christus rex univesorum, sicut dicitur Hebr. 1. et hoc competit ei, quia filius: Gal. 4. Si filius, et haeres per Deum: et ideo agit de aeterna generatione Christi, in qua tria notantur.Christ is the king of the universe, as is said at Hebrews 1, and this belongs to him because he is a son - Galatians 4: If a son, an heir also through God; and thus he treats of the eternal generation of Christ in which three things are noted.
Primo modus generationis. Secundo proprietas filiationis. Tertio aeternitas filii generati.First, the mode of generation, second, the peculiar nature of sonship, and third, the eternity of the begotten son.
Modus ostenditur in hoc quod dicit, Dominus dixit, quia scilicet processit per modum intellectus. Uniuscuiusque generatio est per modum eius. Modus divinae naturae non est carnalis, sed intellectualis, immo est ipsum intelligere.The mode is shown in what he says, The Lord said, namely because he emerged through the mode of intellect. The generation of every single thing is through this mode. The mode of divine nature is not carnal, but immaterial, assuredly, it is understanding itself.
Secundo generatio est processio secundum originem quae invenitur in re intelligibili, quae est secundum conceptionem verbi procedens ab intellectu: et hoc est dicere verbum in corde; et ideo dicit, Dominus dixit, quasi dicendo me generavit. Unde Filius est verbum quod Pater dixit, idest gignendo produxit. Second, generation is a procession according to source which is found in an intelligible thing, which is according to the representation of the word proceeding from the intellect: and this is to say the word in the heart; and thus he says, The Lord said, as if by speaking he generates me. Thus, the Son is the word which the Father said, that is, he produced by begetting.
Proprietas vero ostenditur in hoc, quod dicit, Filius meus, non adoptivus, sicut illi, de quibus dicitur Io. 1. Dedit eis potestatem filios Dei fieri etc. sed proprietate naturae.Peculiarity is shown in that he says, My son, not adopted, as with those concerning which John 1 speaks - He gave them the power to become sons of God etc., but rather by peculiarity of nature.
Unde Filius meus es tu naturalis, singularis, consubstantialis: Matth. 17. Hic est Filius meus dilectus.Thus, You are my son naturally, singularly, and consubstantially - Matthew 17: This is my beloved Son.
Aeternitas ponitur in hoc, quod subiungit, Ego hodie genui te, idest aeternaliter: non enim est nova, sed aeterna generatio; et ideo dicit, Hodie genui te: quia hodie praesentiam signat, et quod aeternum est, semper est.Eternity is described in that he adds, This day have I begotten you, that is, eternally: for this is not a new but an eternal generation; and thus he says, This day have I begotten you: because today signifies the present, and because this is eternal, it is always.
Dicit etiam Hodie, ut designet praesentialitatem cum claritate quae conveniunt Christo, qui et lucem inhabitat inaccessibilem, 1. Tim. 6. Et qui vere est in quo nihil est praeteritum, vel futurum, vel obscurum, sed clarumHe also says Today, so as to designate clearly the presentiality which belongs to Christ, who inhabits the inaccessible light (1 Timothy 6), and in whom there is truly nothing past, future, or obscure, but clear.
f. Supra positum est privilegium aeternae generationis, ex quo Christo competit dominium gentium iure haereditario; hic ostendit, quomodo acquisivit per suum meritum.Above was described the privilege of eternal generation, from which the dominion of the gentiles belongs to Christ by right of heredity. Here, he show how he obtained it through his own merit.
Ubi considerandum est, quod sicut in naturalibus formae infunduntur secundum dispositionem materiae, ita Deus gratuita dona largitur: Philip. 2. Deus est qui operatur in nobis velle et perficere etc. et ideo vult ut recipiamus dona petendo et orando: hoc exemplum voluit ostendere per Christum, quia voluit quod peteret, quod sibi iure haereditario competebat.In which place it ought to be considered that just as forms are infused into natural things according to the disposition of its matter, so too does God bestow gifts freely - Philippians 2: It is God who works in us, to will and to accomplish etc. and thus he wills so that we may receive gifts by beseeching and praying: he wanted to show this example through Christ because he wanted him to beseech that which belonged to him by right of heredity.
Haec autem postulatio pro gentibus vocandis potest intelligi dupliciter. Primo per orationem, quia pro eis oravit: Io. 17. Non pro eis rogo tantum, sed pro eis qui credituri sunt per verbum eorum in me. Item per passionem: Heb. 9. Ut morte intercedente in redemptionem earum praevaricationum, quae erant sub priori testameto, repromissionem recipiant, qui vocati sunt aeternae haereditatis: quae quidem postulatio non fuit vacua, quia in omnibus exauditus est pro sua reverentia, Heb. 5.This supplication on behalf of gentiles calling can be understood in a twofold way. First, through prayer because he prays on their behalf - John 17: Not for them only do I pray, but for them also who through their word shall believe in me. Second, through passion: Hebrews 9: That by means of his death, for the redemption of those trangressions, which were under the former testament, they that are called may receive the promise of eternal inheritance: which supplication is not made in vain, because in all things, he was heard for his own reverence (Hebrews 5).
Unde subditur concessio, cum subditur, Et dabo tibi gentes. Ubi notandum est, quod ad Christum nullus venit nisi dono Patris: Io. 6. Nemo potest venire ad me nisi Pater qui misit me traxerit eum.Thus a concession is added when he says, And I will give you the gentiles. It is to be noted here that no one comes to Christ except by a gift of the Father - John 6: No one can come to me unless the Father, who has sent me, draws him.
Datio autem gentilium est pure donum: nam Iudaei quasi redditi sunt, quia ante dati erant: Rom. 15. Dico Iesum Christum ministrum fuisse circumcisionis etc. et ideo dicit, Dabo tibi gentes, ut scilicet subiiciantur tibi, et sint tua haereditas: Phil. 2. Ut in nomine Iesu omne genuflectatur, caelestium, terrestrium, et infernorum: Ps. 115. Haereditas mea praeclara est mihi.The giving of the gentiles is clearly a gift. For the Jews are returned, as it were, because they had been given before - Romans 15: I say that Jesus Christ was minister of the circumcision etc. and thus he says, I will give you the gentiles, namely so that they may be subjected to you and become your inheritance - Philippians 2: So that in the name of Jesus every knee should bend, of those that are in heaven, on earth, and under the earth; Psalm ?: Magnificent to me was my inheritance.
Item non habet eas sicut ministri habent, ut Petrus, vel Paulus, sed sicut dominus: Heb. 5. Et Moyses quidem fidelis erat in tota domo eius tanquam famulus, in testimonium eorum quae dicenda erant, Christus vero tanquam filius in domo sua, quae domus sumus nos; et ideo dicit, Possessionem tuam: Isa. 49. Ut possideres haereditates dissipatas, ut diceres his qui vincti sunt exite, et his qui sunt in tenebris, revelamini.Again, he does not possess these as ministers possess, like Peter or Paul, but as Lord - Hebrews 3: And Moses indeed was faithful in all his house as a servant, for a testimony of those things which were to be said: but Christ as the Son in his own house: which house are we; and thus he says, Your possession - Isaiah 49: So that you might possess the inheritances that were destroyed, that you might say to them that are bound: Come forth: and to them that are in darkenss: Show yourselves.
Terminos terrae, quia per totum mundum aedificata est ecclesia. Sed postmodum per Nicolaum haereticum, et Mahumetum ad infidelitatem redierunt.The outermost parts of the earth, because the Church was built through the whole world. But afterwards they returned to disbelief through Nicholas the heretic, and Mohammed.
Vel expectatur fundanda: Isa. 49. Parum est, ut sis mihi servus ad suscitandas tribus Iacob, et faeces Israel convertendas. Dedi te in lucem gentium, ut sis salus mea usque ad extremum terrae: Heb. 1. Quem constitui haeredem universorum etc.Or, it is expected to be established - Isaiah 49: It is a small thing that you should be my servant to raise up the tribes of Jacob, and to convert the dregs of Israel. Behold, I have given you to be the light of the gentiles, that you might be my salvation even to the farthest part of the earth; Hebrews 1: Whom he has appointed heir of all things etc.
g. Deinde cum dicit, Reges, ponitur executio potestatis: et secundum historiam posset exponi, quia erat constitutus rex Iudaeorum, ideo et dominabatur gentibus aliquibus quas subiugaverat in figura universalis dominii Christi.Then, when he says, You shall rule them, he describes the execution of power: and this can be explained with respect to history, because a king of the Jews had been appointed, and therefore used to govern some gentiles, whom he had subjugated, in the figure of the universal dominion of Christ.
Sed quia aliter reguntur cives, nam cives reguntur regimine misericordiae, aliter hostes subiugati, scilicet regimine severae iustitiae; ideo dicit, In virga ferrea.But because the citizens were ruled one way, and the enemy subjugated in another (citizens were ruled by the guidance of mercy, the enemy, by the guidance of harsh justice), thus he says, With an iron rod.
Sed melius est ut referatur ad dominium spirituale Christi: necesse est enim quod qui regit, habeat virgam: Virga directionis virga regni tui. Ad hoc enim necessarii sunt reges, ut virgam habeant disciplinae qua puniant delinquentes.But it is better that this be referred spiritually to the dominion of Christ: for it is necessary that he who rules, have a rod: The rod of guidance, the rod of your power. For this reason, kings are necessary, so that they have the rod of discipline by which they punish transgressors.
Et quia Christus constitutus est rex a Deo ad populum regendum, ideo dicit, Reges eos in virga ferrea. Et addit, Ferrea, ad designandum inflexibilem iustitiae disciplinam. Virga namque qua regebantur Iudaei, non fuit ferrea, quia frequenter excusserunt se adorando idola.And because Christ was appointed king by God to rule the people, he says, You shall rule them with a iron rod. He adds, iron, to designate the inflexible discipline of justice. For the rod by which the Jews were ruled, was not made from iron, because they frequently excused themselves by worshiping idols.
Sed haec est virga ferrea qua regit gentes, quia non recedent amplius a dominio Christi, quando plenitudo gentium intraverit: Apoc. 12. Mulier peperit masculum, qui recturus erat omnes gentes in virga ferrea.But this is an iron rule which governs the gentiles, because they do not recede further from the dominion of Christ, when the plenitude of the people will have entered in - Apocalpse 12: The woman brought forth a man child, who was to rule all nations with an iron rod.
Et tanquam vas figuli confringes eos, exponitur per illud Hier. 18. Descendi in domum figuli, et ecce ipse faciebat opus super rotam, et dissipatum est vas, quod ipse faciebat e luto manibus suis. Conversusque fecit illud vas alterum. Et post, Sicut lutum in manu figuli, sic vos in manu mea.And shall break them in pieces like a potter's vessel, is explained by that text at Jeremiah 18: I went down into the potter's house, and behold he was doing a work on the wheel. And the vessel was broken which he was making of clay with his hands: and turning he made another vessel. And later, As clay is in the hand of the potter, so are you in my hand.
Quando enim vas figuli est recens, frangitur de facili a mala forma, et restituitur in bonam. Iudaei conversi erant, unde non erant confringendi: eandem enim est fides eorum et nostra. Gentiles autem erant idolatrae: et ideo erant confringendi, ut aliam formam acciperent, idest aliam fidem veram.For when the potter's vessel is new, it is shattered easily on account of a defective form, and is restored to a good one. The Jews had been converted, and thus did not have to be broken into pieces: for their faith and ours in the same. However, the gentiles were idolators: and thus they had to be broken into pieces, so that they might accept another form, that is a different and true faith.
Vel aliter: In virga ferrea, bonos scilicet, Et tanquam vas figuli, malos qui finaliter conterendi sunt: Luc. 2. Ecce positus est hic in ruinam, et in resurrectionem multorum: Isa. 30. Subito dum non speratur, veniet contritio eius, et comminuentur sicut conteritur lagena figuli contritione pervalida etc. ut sic, qui iustus est, iustificetur adhuc, et qui in sordibus est, sordescat adhuc, Apoc. ult.Or otherwise: With an iron rod, namely goods, And shall break them into pieces like a potter's vessel, evils which were finally destroyed - Luke 2: Behold this child is set for the fall, and for the resurrection of many; Isaiah 30: Suddenly when it is not looked for, his destruction shall come, and it shall be broken small, as the potter's vessel is broken all to pieces with might breaking etc. so that as, he who is just, let him be justified still: and he that is filthy, let him be filthy still (Apocalypse 22).
h. Deinde cum dicit, Et nunc, ostenditur quomodo se habet ad reges. Reprimit autem eos admonendo et attrahendo ad servitutem Dei. Circa hoc ergo duo facit. Primo ponit admonitionem. Secundo assignat admonitionis rationem, ibi, Ne quando irascatur.Then, when he says, And now, he shows how it is related to the kings. He restrains them by admonishing and drawing them to the service of God. Concerning this, therefore, he does two things. First he describes the admonition, and second, assigns its reason, at, Lest at any time the Lord becomes angry.
Monet autem ad tria. Ad doctrinae veritatem, ad obsequii humilitatem, ad correctionis susceptione. Secundum, ibi, Servite. Tertium, ibi, Apprehendite.He admonishes with respect to three things, first, to the truth of doctrine, second, the humility of deference, and third, the acceptance of correction. The second is at Serve, the third at Embrace.
Veritas autem dupliciter cognosci potest ab aliquo: vel per inventiones, et tales dicuntur bene intelligentes; vel per eruditionem, et tales dicuntur bene docibiles.Truth can be known by another in two ways, either through discovery, and these sort are correctly called intelligent, or through erudition, and these sort are correctly called teachable.
Item egentium duplex est gradus. Quibusdam enim committitur universalis gubernatio, qui dicuntur reges. Quibusdam aliquod speciale iudicium, et hi dicuntur iudices.Again, of those in need, there is a twofold degree. General government is commited to some, who are called kings, while particular judgment is entrusted to others, and these are called judges.
Primos ergo exhortatur ad intelligendum: nam intelligens gubernacula possidebit, Prov. 1. Secundos ad erudiendum, ut scilicet ab aliis formam iudicii accipiant; et ideo dicit, Intelligite et erudimini: Sap. 6. Audite reges, et intelligite, discite iudices finium terrae.Therefore the first are exhorted to understand. For the one who understands shall possess governments (Proverbs 1). The second are exhorted to receive instruction, namely so that may acquire the form of judgment from others; and thus he says, Understand and receive instruction - Wisdom 6: Hear, O kings, and understand, learn, O you that are judges of the ends of the earth.
i. Denide cum dicit, Servite, post intellectum convenienter ponit servitutem, quae servitus Dei, quae est latria, est professio fidei.Then, when he says, Serve, he suitably describes, after understanding, service, which is of God, and is adoration, the profession of faith.
Et ideo primo oportet quod credat, et postea confiteatur et serviat: Rom. 10. Corde creditur ad iustitiam, ore autem etc.And thus it is appropriate first that he believe, and afterwards, confess and serve - Romans 10: With the heart we believe unto justice; but with the mouth etc.
Dicit autem Domino: qui enim servit homini, sufficit ut exterius subiiciatur ei obediendo; sed qui servit Deo, oportet quod interius secundum animam subiiciatur ei, bonum affectum habendo: Ps. 61. Nunc Deo subiecta erit anima mea etc.He says Lord: for it suffices the one who serves man that he be joined outwardly to him by obedience; but it is fitting for the one who serves God that he be joined inwardly to him with respect to his soul, by having a good desire - Psalm 61: Shall not my soul be subject to God etc.
Dicit autem In timore, qui sanctus permanet, nec sinit peccare, ut Qui stare se existimat, videat ne cadat, Rom. 10.He says With fear, for he who remains holy, does not permit himself to sin, so that He who considers himself to stand steadfast, let him take heed lest he fall (1 Corinthians 10).
Et notandum secundum Augustinum, quod rex servit Deo inquantum homo, in se iuste vivendo, sed inquantum rex leges ferendo contra ea, quae sunt contra Dei iustitiam: unde in hoc psalmo praefiguratur status ecclesiae: nam a principio reges terrae faciebant leges contra Christum et christianos, sed postea condiderunt leges pro Christo. Et primum ostenditur cum dixit, Astisterunt; secundum ibi, Servite Domino.Let it be noted, according to Augustine, that the king serves God, insofar as he is a man, by living justly in himself, but insofar as he is a king, by enacting laws against those which are contrary to the justice of God: thus in the psalm is prefigured the status of the Church: for from the beginning, the kings of the earth made laws against Christ and christians, but afterwards they established laws in favour of Christ. And the first is shown when he says, (The kings of the earth) have stood up, and the second at, Serve the Lord.
Ne autem haec servitus miseria videatur, addidit, Et exultate ei cum tremore. Quia timor Domini non est miseriae, sed gaudii: propter quod Lev. 10. Respondit Aaron ad Moysen, Quomodo possunt placere Deo mente lugubri?So that this service is not understood to be unhappy, he adds, And exalt him with trembling. Because the fear of the Lord is not a misery, but a joy: according to what is said at Leviticus 10: And Aaron answered Moses, How can they please God with a sorrowful mind?
Sed ne ista laetitia praesumptionem haberet, vel negligentiam, ideo subiungit, Cum tremore, qui est metus subitaneus: Phil. 2. Cum metu et tremore vestram salutem operamimi.But so that this joy does not have boldness or carelessness, he thus adds, with trembling, which is a sudden fear - Philippians 2: With fear and trembling work out your salvation.
Consequenter monet ad susceptionem cum subdit, Apprehendite, ut nemo vivat ut libet, sed ut decet. Et ideo dicit disciplinam, praecepta et bonos mores, vel adversa quasi praesidium et munimentum: Ps. 17. Et discipline tua etc.Consequently, when he adds, Embrace, he advises an undertaking, so that no one may live simply as he pleases, but rather as it is fitting for him to live. And thus he says discipline, commandments and good practices, or adversities, as if an assistance and protection - Psalm 17: And your discipline etc.
Et ponitur ratio admonitionis. Ne quando irascatur: et est duplex ratio ad evitandam poenam, et ad consequendam gloriam, ibi, Beati omnes qui confidunt in eo.He describes the reason of the admonition. Lest at any time the Lord becomes angry: and there is a twofold reason to avoid punishment and seek glory, at, Blessed are all of them who trust in him.
Dicit autem Neque propter patientiam Dei, quia in hoc saeculo diu sustinet: Ps. 1. Nunquid irascetur per singulos dies? dicens: Nisi conversi fueritis; quasi dicat, Servetis admonitionem ne veniat tempus punitionis.He says Not according to the patience of God, because in this age he endured for a long time - Psalm 7: Is he angry every day? saying: Except you will be converted; as if he were saying, Observe the admonition, lest the time of punishment comes.
Ne pereatis de via iusta, scilicet iustitiae et societatis bonorum, quod est valde poenosum his, qui dulcedinem iustitiae gustaverunt.Lest you perish from the right way, namely of justice and the goods of society, which is exceedingly painful to them who have tasted of the sweetness of justice.
Litera Hieronymi habet Pereatis de via, non est ibi iusta. Quando enim homo in mundo est, est sicut in via: nam si cadit, potest resurgere. Nec dicitur perire, quod reparari potest, etiam quod non cadit de via, sed in via. Sed si perit de via, irreparabilis est, Iob 4. Et quia nullus intelligit, in aeternum peribunt.Jerome's version has Perish from the way, and just is not there. For when man is in the world, it is like he is on the way: for if he falls, he can get back up. He is not said to perish, because he can make amends, even that he does not fall from the road, but is on it. But if he perishes from the way, he is irretrievable. And because he understands nothing, he will perish forever.
j. Et ideo dicit Cum, ponitur alia ratio, quae est ad consequendam gloriam; quasi dicat, Apprehendite disciplinam, quia cum exarserit etc.And thus when he say, When, he explains the other reason which is to seek glory; it is as if he were saying, Embrace discipline, because when his anger shall be kindled etc.
Beati erunt omnes qui confidunt in eo. Bene dicit Cum exarserit: modo enim non ardet cum castigat, ut pater; sed in futuro absorbebit et ardebit, quando puniet poena aeterna: Isa. 30. Ecce nomen Domini venit de longinquo, ardens furor eius, et gravis ad portandum: labia eius quasi ignis devorans.Blessed are all of them who trust in him. When his anger shall be kindled is well said: for he does not burn in this way when he chastises, as a father, but in the future he will absorb and burn, when he inflicts the eternal punishment - Isaiah 30: Behold the name of the Lord comes from afar, his anger burning, and heavy to bear: his tongue as a devouring fire.
Dicit autem in brevi, quia non singula peccata separatim, sed simul omnia discutiet. Unde illud iudicium in brevi fiet, nec durabit per mille anoos, ut Lactantius dixit: 1. Cor. 16. In momento, in ictu oculi, in novissima tuba: et tunc omnes boni in immortalitatis gloriam immutabuntur: unde, Beati qui confidunt; quasi dicat, Vindicta non modo attinget confidentes, sed beati erunt, quia ad regnum pervenient: quae beatitudo, vel gloria maior apparebit ex poena malorum: Hier. 17. Beatus vir qui confidit in Domino, et erit Dominus fiducia eius etc.He says in a short time, because he will examine not individual particular sins, but all of them together. Thus that judgement will be made in a short time, and it will not endure for a thousand years, as Lactantius said - 1 Corinthians 15: In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet: and at that time all good things will be transformed in the glory of immortality. Thus, Blessed are those who trust; as if he were saying, In no way will vengeance reach those who trust, but they will be blessed, because they will have attained the kingdom: which beatitude or glory will be more apparent from the punishment of the wicked: Jeremiah 17: Blessed be the man who trusts in the Lord, and the Lord shall be his confidence etc.

© Stephen Loughlin

The Aquinas Translation Project