Psalm 10

[In finem psalmus David] In Domino confido, quomodo dicitis animae meae: Transmigra in montem sicut passer. Quoniam ecce peccatores intenderunt arcum; paraverunt sagittas suas in pharetra, ut sagittent in obscuro rectos corde. Quoniam quae perfecisti destruxerunt.[Unto the end. A psalm for David] In the Lord I put my trust: how then do you say to my soul: Get thee away from hence to the mountain like a sparrow? For, lo, the wicked have bent their bow; they have prepared their arrows in the quiver; to shoot in the dark the upright of heart. For they have destroyed the things which thou hast made:
Iustus autem quid fecit? Dominus in templo sancto suo, Dominus in caelo sedes eius.But what has the just man done? The Lord is in his holy temple, the Lord's throne is in heaven.
Oculi eius in pauperem respiciunt: palpebrae eius interrogant filios hominum. Dominus interrogat iustam et impium.His eyes look on the poor man: his eyelids examine the sons of men. The Lord trieth the just and the wicked:
Qui autem diligit iniquitatem, odit animam suam. Pluet super peccatores laqueos: ignis, et sulphur, et spiritus procellarum, pars calicis eorum. Quoniam iustus Dominus, et iustitias dilexit: aequitatem vidit vultus eius.But he that loveth iniquity hateth his own soul. He shall rain snares upon sinners: fire and brimstone and storms of winds shall be the portion of their cup. For the Lord is just, and hath loved justice: his countenance hath beheld righteousness.
a. In praecedentibus psalmis , posita est gratiarum actio pro liberatione ab hostibus; hic ostendit fiduciam ex hoc conceptam. Et loquitur ex persona hominis desiderantis Dei beneficia, qui consequitur securitatem. a. In the preceding psalm, the giving of thanks was set forth for (the psalmist's) liberation from (his) enemies. Here, he shows the confidence brought about by having received (this liberation). And he speaks from the stance of one desiring God's kindnesses which follows upon freedom from danger.
Titulus, In finem psalmus David: Hieronymus habet, Victor. Hoc supra expositum est. The title (of this psalm is) Unto the end. A psalm for David. Jerome('s version) has Conqueror. This was explained above (in the commentary on Psalm 4).
Hic psalmus potest exponi litteraliter de David: mystice autem de Christo, sive allegorice. Moraliter vero de viro iusto, et haereticis, ut exponit Glossa.This psalm can be explained literally of David, or mystically of Christ, or allegorically. Morally it concerns the just man, and heretics, as the Gloss explains.
Primo ergo David proponit suam fiduciam, In Domino confido: quasi liberatus per iustum Dei iudicium deprimens peccatores et exaltans pauperes: Hier. 17: Beatus vir qui confidit in Domino, et erit Dominus fiducia eius: Dan. 3: Non est confusio confidentibus in te. Secundo ponit fiduciae eius impugnationem, quae fiebat verbis: Quomodo dicitis etc.Therefore, David first sets forth his confidence, In the Lord I put my trust: as liberated by God's righteous judgment, weighing sinners down and lifting up the poor: Jeremiah 17:7: Blessed be the man that trusteth in the Lord, and the Lord shall be his confidence: Daniel 3:40: There is no confusion in those who trust in you. Second, he describes the assault upon his confidence, which was effected through the spoken word (at), How then do you say etc.
David enim fugienti consulebant quidam ut iret ad loca munita et montes; vel ut ibi latitaret ut passer est factus. Quomodo? Ecce peccatores etc. Et exponitur dupliciter. Primo ut sint verba non David, sed aliorum: quasi dicat: ideo Transmigra, quia, Tetenderunt arcum. Vel sint verba David, quasi dicat, In Domino confido: quia tetenderunt arcum, paraverunt peccatores sagittas etc. Et facit tria. Primo ponit eorum pravam solicitudinem. Secundo perversam intentionem, Ut sagittent. Tertio iniustam operationem, Quoniam quae perfecisti.Some people counseled David when he was fleeing so that he would go to a fortified place and indeed to the mountains; or, so that he would hide there as a sparrow would. For (what reason)? Lo, the wicked have bent their bow, etc. This can be explained in two ways. First, so that these words are not David's, but (instead are those) of others: and so, Get thee away, because They (the wicked) have bent their bow. Or, (second), these words are David's, as if he were saying, In the Lord I put my trust:...for they have bent their bow, they have prepared their arrows etc. And (with respect to the second of these), he does three things. First, he sets forth their perverse solicitude, second, their perverse intention, at, To shoot, and third, their unjust activity, at, For they have destroyed the things which thou hast made.
Mystice de Christo sic: ego Christus in Domino confido: Quomodo ergo vos pharisaei dicitis transmigra in montem, idest ad legis observantias datas in monte Sinai: Deut. 33: Dominus de sinai venit, et de seir ortus est nobis; et nisi hoc feceris, Ecce peccatores intenderunt arcum etc., idest paraverunt se ad occidendum te et discipulos tuos; et hoc, Quoniam quae tu perfecisti destruxerunt, idest occiderunt. (This could can also be said) mystically of Christ. And so, "I, the Christ, In the Lord I put my trust: how, then, do you, the pharisees, say...get thee the mountain, that is, to the observances of the law given on Mount Sinai: Deuteronomy 33:2: The Lord came from Sinai, and from Seir he rose up to us; and unless you do this, Lo, the wicked have bent their bow etc, that is, they have readied themselves to kill you and your disciples; For they have destroyed the things which thou hast made, that is, they have killed.
Vel moraliter dicit fidelis haereticis, secundum Glossam, In Domino confido, tenens eius fidem: Quomodo ergo vos haeretici, Dicitis, transmigra, ad nos, In montem, idest Christum quem crediderunt habere haeretici? Isa. 2: Erit praeparatus mons domus Domini in vertice montium: 2 Reg. 1: Montes gelboe, nec ros nec pluvia veniant super vos, neque sint agri primitiarum quia ibi abiectus est clypeus fortium, idest Iudaeorum, vel magnorum haereticorum: Hier. 51: Ecce ego mons pestifer, qui corrumpo universam terram.Or, (taking the passage) morally, the faithful are speaking about the heretics, according to the Gloss, In the Lord I put my trust, keeping his faith: How, then, do you heretics, Say, to us, Get thee the mountain, that is, to Christ whom the heretics believed they possessed? Isaiah 2:2: The mountain of the house of the Lord shall be prepared on the top of mountains: 2 Kings 1:21: Ye mountains of Gelboe, let neither dew, nor rain come upon you, neither be they fields of firstfruits: for there was cast away the shield of the valiant, that is of the Jews, or of the great heretics: Jeremiah 51:25: Behold I come against thee, thou destroying mountain...which corruptest the whole earth.
Vel mons altitudo intellectus quem fingunt se habere. Sed si hoc facerem, essem passer levis, non mansionarius. Or, the mountain is the height of the intellect which they suppose themselves to have. But if I had accomplished this, I would be a swift sparrow, and not (a sparrow) belonging to a dwelling (a pet?).
Quoniam ecce peccatores, idest haeretici, Intenderunt arcum, idest ad se traxerunt sacram scripturam, sicut qui tendunt arcum: Paraverunt sagittas, venenosa eloquia, In pharetra, idest memoria vel scientia: Hier. 5: Pharetra eius quasi sepulcrum patens. Hieronymus habet, Sagittas suas super nervum, idest chordam: intentio perversa, Ut sagittent rectos corde, idest iustos, In obscuro, idest dolose: Hier. 9: Sagitta vulnerans lingua eorum. Vel, In obscuro, idest subtilitatibus sacrae scripturae. For, lo, the wicked, that is the heretics, Have bent their bow, that is, have drawn (or "turned") sacred scripture towards themselves, just as those who aim a bow: They have prepared their arrows, eloquence full of poison, In the quiver, that is, in memory and knowledge: Jeremiah 5:16: Their quiver is as an open sepulchre. Jerome('s version) has, His arrows upon the sinew, that is, the string (of the bow): (with a) perverse intention, To shoot the upright of heart, that is the just, In the dark, that is, deceitfully: Jeremiah 9:8: Their tongue is a piercing arrow. Or, In the dark, that is, with the intricacies of sacred scripture.
Alia littera habet In obscura luna. Luna est ecclesia: Cant. 6: Pulchra ut luna, propter eius claritatem, et propter eius obscurationem. Claritas lunae est a sole; sic claritas ecclesiae est a Christo: Io. 1: Erat lux vera quae illuminat etc. Item medius lunae globus est clarus, et medius obscurus; sic in ecclesia aliqui sunt clari, aliqui obscuri. Obscuratur autem luna, secundum Glossam, quandoque per revolutionem, et sic fit obscura: quandoque per eclypsim, et tunc in sanguinem convertitur: quandoque per interpositionem nubis, et tunc fit nigra. Sic ecclesia fit obscura in novitate, quando non sunt in ea praedicatores et doctores; sanguinea per persecutionem tyrannorum; nigra per nubes, idest per seductionem haereticorum; et tunc vult sagittare. Another version has In the dark moon. The moon is the Church: Canticle of Canticles 6:9: Fair as the moon, both on account of her brightness, and her darkness. The brightness of the moon is from the sun, just as the brightness of the Church is from Christ: John 1:9: That was the true light, which enlighteneth every man. Again, half of the moon's sphere is bright and the other half is dark, just as the Church is bright at times, and dark at others. The moon is darkened, according to the Gloss, at times through its revolution, and so it becomes dark: at other times, through an eclipse, and then it is becomes red or bloody; still other times, (it is darkened) through the interposition of clouds, and then it becomes black. So too does the Church become dark when, in her newness, there are no preachers and doctors for her; bloody through the persecution of tyrants; black through clouds, that is, through the seduction of heretics; and then she wishes to discharge her arrows.
Hic ponitur iniusta actio eorum, Quoniam quae perfecisti destruxerunt. Alia littera, Quoniam quem perfecisti (destruxerunt); sed prima melior est, et secundum Hieronymum, Quoniam leges quas perfecisti destruxerunt: Isa. 48: Scio quod praevaricans praevaricatus es, et transgressorem ex utero vocavi te: Hier. 2: A saeculo fregisti iugum, rupisti vincula; dixisti, non serviam: quasi dicat: destruent legem tuam, quam tu praecepisti servari. Exod. 33: Innocentem et iustum non condemnabis; sed isti volunt eum occidere: Psal. 118: Dissipaverunt iniqui legem tuam; et Deus perfecit eam, quia dedit eam: Psal. 147: Non fecit taliter omni nationi: Matth. 5: Non veni solvere legem, sed adimplere. Their unjust activity is set down here, (at) For they have destroyed the things which thou hast made. Another version has, For (they have destroyed) he whom you have made; but the former is better. According to Jerome('s version, we have), For they have destroyed the laws which you have made: Isaiah 48:8: I know that transgressing thou wilt transgress, and I have called thee a transgressor from the womb; Jeremiah 2:20: Of old time thou hast broken my yoke, thou hast burst my bands, and thou saidst: I will not serve: as if he were saying: "They destroy your law which you yourself have given to be observed." Exodus 23:7: The innocent and just person thou shalt not condemn; but they (the unjust and the wicked) wish to kill him (the innocent and just person): Psalm 118:53: The wicked have destroyed thy law; and God completed it (the law), because he gave it: Psalm 147:20: He hath not done in like manner to every nation; Matthew 5:17: I am not come to destroy (the law), but to fulfil (it).
Si dicatur, Quem perfecisti destruxerunt, sic intelligitur de Christo, quem tu perfecisti.If it were said, They have destroyed (he) whom you have made, then it is understood of Christ, whom you have made.
b. Iustus. Hic ponitur ratio fiduciae. Et primo ponitur quaestio. Secundo solutio, ibi, Dominus in templo etc. Tertio solutionis ratio, Quoniam iustus Dominus, et iustitias dilexit. b. (But what has) the just (man done?). Here, he sets forth the reason for (his) confidence. First, he puts forth a question, second, a solution, at, The Lord is in his holy temple, and third, the reason for the solution, at, For the Lord is just, and hath loved justice.
Dicit ergo, Sic faciunt isti; sed iustus Dominus auctoritate videns hoc, quid facit? Hier. 33: Hoc est nomen quod vocabunt eum Dominus iustus noster. Solvit quaestionem, et ponit quid facit hic iustus. Et primo eius iudiciariam potestatem, vel conditionem iudicis. Secundo iudicii discussionem, Oculi eius. Tertio condemnationem concussorum, Qui autem diligit.And so, he says, "These (wicked men) have acted so; but what does the just Lord, seeing this, do in his might?" Jeremiah 33:16: This is the name that they shall call him, The Lord our just one. He answers (his) question, and sets down what the just one does. First, (he sets forth) his judicial power, or the rank of the judge, second, the judge's examination, at, His eyes, and third, the condemnation of those closely examined, at, He that loveth iniquity.
Iudex si semper punit, crudelis est; si semper parcit, remissus. Deus autem utrumque facit; et ideo locum habet tribunal misericordiae; et hoc est templum: Hebr. 4: Adeamus cum fiducia ad thronum gratiae; et ideo dicit, Dominus in templo sancto suo: 1 Cor. 3: Nescitis quia templum Dei estis, et spiritus sanctus habitat in vobis? Habet etiam locum iustitiae, unde punit, scilicet caelum; et hoc est etiam, Dominus in caelo sedes eius. Ubi enumeratur potestas eius: Isa. ult.: Caelum mihi sedes est. If a judge always punishes, he is cruel; if he always pardons, he is remiss. God, however, both pardons and punishes; for that reason, the judgment seat of mercy has a place, and this is the temple: Hebrews 4:16: Let us go therefore with confidence to the throne of grace; and thus he says, The Lord is in his holy temple: 1 Corinthians 3:16: Know you not, that you are the temple of God, and that the Spirit of God dwelleth in you? (The judgment seat) of justice, whence he punishes, also has a place, namely heaven; and this is also (set forth at), The Lord's throne is in heaven, where his power is recounted: Isaiah 66:1: Heaven is my throne.
Templum dicuntur fideles propter devotionem, caelum propter sapientiam. Item caelum dicitur cuna in qua Deus sedet ut faciat eum caelum, idest secreta scientem.The faithful are called "a temple" on account of their devotion, and "heaven" because of their wisdom. Again, "heaven" is said to be the cradle in which God sits so that he makes a heaven in him (namely, the faithful), that is, (making him to) know secret things.
Item dicitur anima templum Dei, quia in templo Deus adoratur. Similiter in anima fideli: Matth. 6: Intra in cubiculum tuum, idest secreta animae tuae, Et clauso ostio ora patrem tuum in abscondito. Item ibi offeruntur sacrificia: similiter in anima fideli: Psal. 50: Sacrificium deo spiritus contribulatus. Item in templo funduntur orationes ad Deum, ita in anima operatur Deus: Isa. 26: Omnia opera nostra operatus es in nobis Domine. Item, quia Deus eam sanctificat, et in eam descendit sicut in templum: Sap. 4: Gratia Dei in sanctos eius, et respectus etc.Again, the soul is called the temple of God, because God is adored in the temple. In like fashion (is God adored) in the soul of the faithful: Matthew 6:6: Enter into thy chamber, that is into the hidden recesses of your soul, and having shut the door, pray to thy Father in secret. Again, sacrifices are offered there (in the temple): in like fashion (are such offered) in the soul of the faithful: Psalm 50:19: A sacrifice to God is an afflicted spirit. Again, as prayers are poured forth to God in the temple, so too does God work in the soul: Isaiah 26:12: Thou hast wrought all our works for us. Again, because God sanctifies her, he descends into her as into his temple: Wisdom 4:15: The grace of God, (and his mercy is with his saints,) and that he hath respect to his chosen.
c. Oculi. Hic agit de discussione iudicii. Et primo ponit divinae cognitionis perfectionem. Secundo diligentem examinationem, ibi, Palpebrae eius interrogant filios hominum. Tertio iudicii aequitatem, ibi, Dominus interrogat iustum et impium.c. His eyes. Here he treats of the judge's examination. And first, he sets down the perfection of divine knowledge, second, the careful examination, at, His eyelids examine the sons of men, and third, the judge's equity, at, The Lord trieth the just and the wicked.
Per primum nullus potest occultari, quia videt affectum pauperis et impii, peccatoris et iusti: Ezech. 23: Oculi Domini lucidiores sunt super solem, circumspicientes super omnes vias hominum, et profundum abyssi, et hominum corda intuentes: Prov. 16: Omnes viae hominum patent oculis eius; spirituum ponderator est Dominus, idest cogitationum, vel animarum secundum glossam; et ideo dicit, Oculi eius in pauperem respiciunt, ad miserandum: Psal. 30: Miserere mei Domine, quoniam tribulor. Item Ps. 27: Dominus protector meus, et in ipso speravit cor meum etc. Ad protegendum etiam probando: Ps. 33: Oculi Domini super iustos. Item Ps. 31: In via hac qua gradieris, firmabo super te oculos meos. Et sic respiciens examinat diligenter. Because of the first, (namely the perfection of divine knowledge), nothing can be hidden since he sees the condition of the poor man and the wicked, of the sinner and the just: The eyes of the Lord are brighter than the sun, watching carefully over the ways of men and the depth of the abyss, looking into the hearts of men (unknown: possibly a variant on Job 34:21-22); Proverbs 16:2: All the ways of a man are open to his eyes: the Lord is the weigher of spirits, that is, of (men's) thoughts, or of (their) souls, according to the Gloss; whence he says, His eyes look on the poor man, to have mercy (on him): Psalm 30:10: Have mercy on me, O Lord, for I am afflicted. And again, at Psalm 27:7: The Lord is my helper and my protector: in him hath my heart confided etc. (His eyes look on the poor man) also to protect (him) while examining him: Psalm 33:16: The eyes of the Lord are upon the just. And again, at Psalm 31:8: I will instruct thee in this way, in which thou shalt go: I will fix my eyes upon thee. And so, looking in this way, he examines carefully.
Palpebrae eius interrogant etc. Per palpebras significatur discretio: quia sicut palpebrae oculi dirigunt visum, sic discretio moderatur humanam sapientiam: Prov. 4: Palpebrae tuae praecedant gressus tuos. Ipsa ergo discretio Dei interrogat, idest probat et examinat: Sap. 1: Cogitationibus impii interrogatio erit: sermonum autem illius auditio ad Deum veniet. Et quomodo? Quia quandoque punit, quandoque parcit, quandoque dat beneficia, quandoque aufert: Iob 6: Sagittae Domini etc. Etiam claudit palpebras et aperit: Matth. 17: Misereor super turba etc. Item ibidem 21: Auferetur a vobis regnum Dei: Ps. 146: Dat iumentis escam ipsorum etc.His eyelids examine the sons of men. By eyelids is signified discernment, for just as the eyelids direct the sight of the eye, so too does discernment regulate human wisdom: Proverbs 4:25: Let thy eyelids go before thy steps. Therefore, God's very discernment examines, that is, tests and considers: Wisdom 1:9: Inquisition shall be made into the thoughts of the ungodly: and the hearing of his words shall come to God. And in what manner? Sometimes he punishes, other times he spares, sometimes he gives kindnesses, and at other times he bears (these gifts) away: Job 6:4: The arrows of the Lord (are in me, the rage whereof drinketh up my spirit, and the terrors of the Lord war against me). He also shuts (his) eyelids and opens (them): Matthew 15:32: I have compassion on the multitudes (because they continue with me now three days, and have not what to eat, and I will not send them away fasting, lest they faint in the way). And again at Matthew 21:43: The kingdom of God shall be taken from you: Psalm 146:9: Who giveth to beasts their food etc.
Interrogat filios hominum, quia efficiuntur quidam ex ipsis meliores, quidam peiores; vel quidam ex scriptura efficiuntur mali, quidam boni: quia quidam eam bene intelligunt et non fatigantur, sed exercentur; mali vero e converso faciunt. He examines the sons of men, because by these very (examinations), some are made better, while others (are made) worse; or, by the scriptures, some are made better, others worse: for some understand (scriptures) well and are not tired (by the effort), but are engaged busily (by them), while the evil do the contrary.
Iudicii aequitas ponitur: quia, Interrogat iustum et impium, quia immittit flagella iustis et iniustis, et tribuit bona temporalia bonis et malis: Sap. 11: Hos, scilicet bonos, tamquam pater monens probasti; illos autem, scilicet malos, tamquam rex durus interrogans condemnasti.The equity of (his) judgment is set forth: (The Lord) trieth the just and the wicked, because he sends afflictions upon the just and the unjust, and bestows worldly goods upon the good and the bad: Wisdom 11:11: For thou didst admonish and try them, namely the good, as a father: but the others, namely the evil, as a severe king, thou didst examine and condemn.
Propterea dicit, Dominus interrogat iustum et impium, idest per tribulationes probat. Gregorius: Poena inflicta interrogat, si quis in tribulatione positus Deum veraciter amat. Iustum interrogat, idest examinat Dominus ut praemietur: Sap. 10: Reddidit Deus mercedem laborum sanctorum suorum. Sed impium sive peccatorem interrogat, ut condemnetur: Matth. 23: Ligatis manibus et pedibus proiicite eum in tenebras exteriores.Therefore, he says, The Lord trieth the just and the wicked, that is, he tries (them) through tribulations. Gregory (says the following): He trieth with punishment, if the one placed in tribulation truly loves God. He trieth the just, that is, the Lord examines so that he may reward: Wisdom 10:17: God rendered (to the just) the wages of their holy labor. But He tries the wicked and the sinner so that he might be condemned: Matthew 22:13: Bind his hands and feet, and cast him into the exterior darkness.
d. Hic ponitur condemnatio: et circa hoc duo facit: quia primo ponit culpam; secundo poenam, ibi, Pluet super peccatores. d. Here the sentencing is set forth. Concerning this, he does two things. First, he sets forth blame, and second, the punishment, at, He shall rain...upon sinners.
Ostendit quod quantum est ex parte Dei, non est perditio malorum, sed ex parte nostra; unde dicit, Qui diligit iniquitatem, idest peccatum: Ioan. 3: Omnis qui facit peccatum, et iniquitatem facit, quia peccatum iniquitas est. Odit animam suam: Sap. 16: Homo per malitiam occidit animam suam. He shows that as much as it is on the part of God, He is not the ruin of wicked (men), but rather (this ruin) is on our part; whence he says, He that loveth iniquity, that is, sin: John 3:20: Every one that doth evil, does iniquity, because sin is iniquity. (Such a person) hates his own soul: Wisdom 16:14: A man through malice hates his own soul.
Sed quaeritur, quomodo quis se odire possit. But it is asked, how could anyone hate himself?
Dicendum, quod quodammodo odit peccator seipsum; sed simpliciter nullus odit: Ephes. 5: Nemo unquam carnem suam odio habuit.It is to be said that the sinner after a fashion hates himself; but simply (speaking), no one hates himself: Ephesians 5:29: No man ever hateth his own flesh.
Sed quod mali quodammodo odiunt seipsos, et etiam boni quodammodo se odiunt, declaratur hoc modo. Anima nostra duas habet facies: unam versus Deum secundum rationem, aliam versus carnem secundum naturam sensitivam, quae tantum corporalia comprehendit. Et sicut quaelibet res diligit proprium bonum, ita homo diligit illud quod aestimat animam suam. Peccatores enim aestimant animam suam quod principaliter intendunt: quia quaelibet res est illud quod est praecipuum in ea, sicut rex dicitur regnum. Qui ergo naturam sensitivam habent principale diligunt eam; qui autem intellectivam, eamdem amant. Nullus ergo odit animam quantum ad id quod aestimat principale. Boni ergo odiunt quantum ad naturam sensitivam; mali quantum ad intellectivam. But that the evil hate themselves in a way, and that even the good hates themselves after a fashion, is made clear in this way: Our soul has two faces (so to speak); one turned to God in accordance with reason, the other turned to flesh in accordance with the sensitive nature, which comprehends things in so far as they are bodily. And as everything delights in its proper good, so too does man delight in that which he considers to be his soul. Sinners consider their soul to be that which they principally aspire after. For everything is (identified with) that which is pre-eminent in it, just as a king is his kingdom, or his rule. Therefore, the former having a sensitive nature delight in it; however, the latter, having an intellectual nature, love it. And so, no one hates his soul insofar as it is that which he principally considers. The good, therefore, hate their souls with respect to its sensitive nature, while the evil hate its intellectual aspect.
Secundo ponit poenam. Et hoc possumus exponere de praesenti, vel de futuro. De praesenti sic, et servat metaphoram. Dixit quod Dominus est in caelo, quia ibi est sedes eius; sed de caelo venit pluvia: ideo eorum poena signatur cum dicitur, Pluet super peccatores. Et quid? Laqueos. Et si exponatur hic in praesenti, notandum est, quod in peccato sunt quatuor. Primum est seductio; unde dicit: Pluet super peccatores laqueos. Quasi iusto iudicio permittit eos illaqueari et seduci: Isa. 8: Et offendentur ex eis plurimi et cadent, et conterentur et irretientur et capientur. Secundum est concupiscentia; et ideo dicit, Ignis concupiscentiae: Psal. 57: Supercecidit ignis, et non viderunt solem, scilicet carnalis concupiscentiae etc. Tertium est foetor infamiae; et ideo dicit, Sulphur. Sic pluit Dominus super Sodomam et Gomorrham igne et sulphure. Potest addi et quartum, scilicet inquietudo mentis; et ideo dicit, Spiritus procellarum: Isa. 57: Cor impii quasi mare fervens. Pars calicis eorum: quia calix est quaedam mensura, et ipsi poenas habent secundum eorum peccata: Isa. 27: In mensura contra mensuram, cum abiecta fuerit iudicabit. Secondly, he sets forth the penalty. This we can explain either concerning the present or of the future. Concerning the present, it serves as a metaphor. He says that The Lord is in heaven, because that is where his seat is; but from heaven comes the rain: for that reason their penalty is signified when it is said, He shall rain upon sinners. And what (shall he rain upon them)? Snares. And if we explain this according to the present, it should be noted that in a sin there are four things. First, there is seduction; whence he says: He shall rain snares upon sinners. It is as if, by a just judgment, he allows them to be ensnared and seduced: Isaiah 8:15: And very many of them shall stumble and fall, and shall be broken in pieces, and shall be snared, and taken. Second, there is concupiscence or sensual desire; whence he says, the fire of concupiscence: Psalm 57:9: Fire, namely of carnal concupiscence, hath fallen on them, and they shall not see the sun. Third, there is the stench of dishonor; whence he says, Brimstone, just as the Lord rained upon Sodom and Gomorrah with fire and brimstone. A fourth can be added, namely the uneasiness of the mind; when he says, Storms of winds: Isaiah 57:20: The heart of the wicked is like a raging sea (which cannot rest). The portion of their cup: because a cup is a sort of measure, and each of them have penalties according to their sins: Isaiah 27:8: In measure against measure, when it shall be cast off, thou shalt judge it.
Sed si exponatur de futuro, sic punientur ibi motus: quia ligabuntur ut nec mala vitare, nec bona consequi possint; ideo dicit, Pluet super peccatores laqueos, idest colligantes sensus: et sic referuntur ad odoratum sulphur, ad tactum ignis: Isa. 66: Ignis eorum non extinguetur: Apoc. 20: Missi in stagnum ignis. But if (this passage) is explained with respect to the future, thus they will be punished for (their) action there: for they will be bound so that they can neither escape the evils nor pursue the goods; whence he says, He shall rain snares upon sinners, that is, binding their senses: thus they are brought to the odor of brimstone, to the feeling of fire: Isaiah 66:24: Their fire shall not be quenched: Apocalypse 20:14: They were cast into the pool of fire.
Item affectus, quia non quiescunt: quia, Spiritus procellarum pars calicis eorum, idest daemones inquietantes, molestantes, et affligentes. Quoniam iustus Dominus et iustitias dilexit, ideo non expectandum est ab eo nisi iustitia: Hier. 9: Ego Dominus qui facio misericordiam, iudicium et iustitiam in terra: Psal. 114: Iustus Dominus in omnibus viis suis. Aequitatem vidit vultus eius, vel facies, idest aequitas visa est notitia eius; quasi dicat: illis quibus innotescit et quos diligit, aequitatem ostendit.In like manner their desires, because they will not rest. For, The storms of winds, that is the demons disturbing, molesting and afflicting (them), shall be the portion of their cup. For the Lord is just, and hath loved justice; whence nothing is to be expected from him except justice: Jeremiah 9:24: I am the Lord that exercise mercy, and judgment, and justice in the earth; Psalm 144:17: The Lord is just in all his ways. His countenance, that is, his face, hath beheld righteousness, that is, equity has been seen in his knowledge; as if to say: to those whom he knows and whom he loves, he shows his equity.

© Stephen Loughlin

The Aquinas Translation Project